Said to be the exclamation of Archimedes (Greek-Sicilian mathematician , physicist, and inventor, c. 287-212 B.C.) who, while bathing, discovered how to determine the gold content of a crown made for King Hiero II of Syracuse. His discovery of the principle of buoyancy while bathing, helped him in determining the content of the gold and base metal in Hiero's crown. This experiment led to the discovery of the law of specific gravity.
Eureka is the motto of the state of California; based on the theory that gold miners yelled this out when gold was first discoverd there. California was admitted to the Union on September 9, 1850. There is a city in Northern California named Eureka. Incidentally, Ronald Reagan, Governor of California and President of the United States, attended Eureka College—in Eureka, Illinois.
So, since the 16th century, the term has been used as an exulting (joyous) cry of discovery!
Any time a student refers to a teacher as a pedagogue he or she is not suggesting that the teacher has feet which are a foot-and-a-half (sesquipedalian) long.
The Greek ped used in English is a shortened form of the Greek pais (paid-), which means a "child"; usually a "boy", because in old Grecian times, boys were considered "more important" than girls.
Actually, pedagogue means "a child's guide" or "guiding a child". In ancient Athens, the pedagogue was a slave who led his master's children (boys) to school or provided private tutoring. In the U.S., the equivalent of "guiding a child" is now "home schooling". In time, the word became known as a "teacher".
This Greek ped is used primarily in technical terms; such as pedagogics, which refers to the "science of teaching". There is more information about pedoagogue, pedagog on this page.
Another derivative from the Greek ped is a word meaning "education" or the results of "education"; such as, "knowledge" or "learning". The Greek element pedia is found in other Greek words; such as, cyclopedia and encyclopedia, "circles of knowledge".
Motto of St. Edmund's School, Canterbury, UK.
Deutéra [second day] (Monday)
Tríti [third day] (Tuesday)
Tetárti [fourth day] (Wednesday)
Pémpti [fifth day] (Thursday)
Paraskeuí [sixth day] (Friday)
Sábbato or Sabbáto (?) (Saturday)
Kuriakí means, "Lord’s day" which is followed by "second, third, fourth, fifth" days. Paraskeuí, meaning, "preparation", is a biblical term used historically by Greek-church fathers. Sábbato or Sabbáto means the Sabbath, or "to rest" as in "day of rest".
I received your book on 6/26/00. Congratulations on a great book. You no doubt spent a great amount of time in research. I find the book fascinating.
Its been over 45 years since I studied Latin and Greek in college and unless one keeps it up, one tends to forget. You have rekindled my interest. Now that Im retired, Ill have more time. I have always been interested in the origin of words especially from Latin and Greek.
Because the schools do not teach Latin and Greek as they once did, your book would be invaluable in helping students with the English language; thereby enriching their thought process. I am so happy that we still have people in this world who regard knowledge of Latin and Greek essential to scholarly development.
To quote Seneca, Jr. from your book: Non scholae, sed vitae discimus. Thank you for your illusions and also many thanks to your wife.
Note from your editor: The illusions referred to the dedication in Words for a Modern Age, A Cross Reference of Latin and Greek Combining Elements in which I wrote: Dedicated to my wife, who has been my sine qua non. She has kept me in good health with her loving concern for my well being and has rarely interfered with my efforts to strive for my illusions.
The Latin quotation by Seneca, Jr. means: We dont learn just for school, but we learn for life..
Speaking of books. The following came from "The Spelling Newsletter" published by Ray Laurita, Leonardo Press, PO Box 1326, Camden, ME 04843.
After reading the following exchange which appeared in the Metropolitan Diary, I have a feeling that our readers will be equally dismayed:
Carol Ruth Langer stopped at the information desk of a Barnes & Noble in Midtown to inquire about a copy of the Book of Job.
"How would you be spelling 'Job'?" the clerk asked.
"J -- O -- B", Ms. Langer said.
"Job books are in the career section."
Ms. Langer tried again. "Not job, Job, a book in the Bible".
"Who is the author" the clerk asked.
At that point, Ms. Langer knew it was time to leave.
Additional words that exist that are derived from the Greek element tribo-: nanotribology, [no dictionary seems to be available that has a definition for this term.] The following definitions came from various sources on the internet.
First, on Thursday, January 21, 1999, there was the following information from Dr. Jacqueline Krim, Professor of Physics at North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina:
“Thank you for your inquiry. Yes, I coined the term nanotribology in a paper I wrote in 1991, entitled, Nanotribology of a Kr [krypton] monolayer: A Quartz Crystal Microbalance Study of Atomic-Scale Friction’, J. Krim, D. Solina and R. Chiarello, PRL, 66, (1991) p. 181-184.”
“I would define nanotribology as the sub-field of tribology involving contact geometries which are well-characterized at atomic length or time scales. These tend to be on the order of nanometers and nanoseconds.”
Secondly, on Friday, January 22, 1999, I received another clarifying definition that I had requested from a contact I found on the internet.
I asked for a simple, easy to understand definition of “nanotribology” and this is what he sent to me:
“Tribology is the science and technology of two surfaces in relative motion which encompasses friction, wear, and lubrication. Nanotribology allows the study of friction and wear processes on nanoscale.”
Now you know what nanotribology means, don’t you? If you want to know more about nanotribology, here are excerpts of other definitions; but be WARNED that if they are too confusing or of no interest to you, you may scroll down to the area where other tribo- words are presented. Don’t give up before you see the rest of the list, please.
Micro/nanotribology as a field is concerned with experimental and theoretical investigations of processes ranging from atomic and molecular scales to the microscale, occurring during adhesion, friction, wear, and thin-film lubrication at sliding surfaces.
This involves determination of the chemical, physical and mechanical properties of the surfaces undergoing relative motion at length scales of the order of nanometers. Interaction between rubbing surfaces occurs at asperities [roughness of surfaces] at which the local pressure and temperatures can be very high.
These conditions can lead to formation of tribochemical films with the unusual properties necessary for efficient wear protection. The nanomechanical properties of these films are being investigated by interfacial force microscopy (IFM) which is capable of determining the elastic constants and anelastic behavior of the films in boundary layer lubrication.
Proposed nanotribology experiments for the Triboscope include studying the effect of different contact areas, scan directions and crystallographic orientations on both lubricated and unlubricated surfaces.
Tribology is the study of friction, lubrication and wear. Nanotribology is roughly defined as the study of these same phenomena down to the nN and nanometer force and length scales.
I hope I haven’t lost you in the sea of obfuscation (confusion, obscurity, or bewilderment) because there are other interesting words to learn. Here are additional examples that are derived from tribo-:
- triboelectric, an electrical charge produced by friction between two objects; such as, rubbing silk on a glass surface.
- triboelectricity, in physics, electrical charges produced by friction between two surfaces; static electricity.
- tribofluorescence, triboflurescent; to give off light as a result of friction.
- tribologist, a specialist in the science of tribology.
- tribology, tribological, the science of the mechanisms of friction, lubrication, and wear of interacting surfaces that are in relative motion.
- triboluminescence, the quality of emitting light under friction or violent mechanical pressure.
- triboluminescent, exhibiting triboluminescence.
- tribophosphorescence, tribophosphorescent; to produce light by friction.
- tribothermoluminescence, thermoluminescence [luminescence resulting from exposure to high temperature] produced in a material as a result of friction.
- tribometer, an instrument for estimating sliding friction.
- tribophysics, the physical properties or phenomena associated with friction.
- tribophosphoroscope, an instrument for examining triboluminescence.
- tribulation, originally from Greek; then through Latin, “to press; affliction”; distress, great trial, or affliction.
Frictional electricity was supposedly known to the ancient Greeks, particularly Thales of Miletus, who observed about 600 B.C. that when amber was rubbed, it would attract small bits of matter. The term “frictional electricity” gave way to “triboelectricity,” although since “tribo” means “to rub,” the newer term does little to change the concept.
“The Roman tribulum was a sledge consisting of a wooden block studded with sharp pieces of flint or iron teeth. It was used to bring force and pressure against wheat in grinding out grain.
The machine suggested the way trouble grinds people down and oppresses them, tribulations becoming another word for troubles and afflictions. The word is first recorded in English in 1330.”.
The Romans ground out their corn [make that grain-J.R.] with a heavy roller, mentioned in Vergil’s Georgics among agricultural instruments: the tribulum, diminutive noun, from tritere, trit , to rub, from Greek tribein, to rub. Being ground under and pressed out made an excellent metaphor to express the trials and tribulations of the early Christians.
“To know the origin of words is to know how men think, how they have fashioned their civilization. Word history traces the path of human fellowship, the bridges from mind to mind, from nation to nation.
“Some of the words in our language can be traced to a remote past; some have histories that begin but yesterday. Many are members of large families, with intertwining legend and history. Slow change, swift new coinage of science or slang, ancient or recent borrowing from many tongues: together they give flexibility, power, and beauty to English, the richest and most widespread language of all time.”
Used in math and science.
Α α, alpha
Β β, beta
Γ γ, gamma
Δ δ, delta
Ε ε, epsilon
Ζ ζ, zeta
Η η, eta
Θ θ theta
Ι ι, iota
Κ κ, kappa
Λ λ, lambda
Μ μ, mu
Ν ν, nu
Ξ ξ, xi
Ο ο, omicron
Π π, pi
Ρ ρ, rho
Σ σ, sigma
Τ τ, tau
Υ υ, upsilon
Φ φ, phi
Χ χ, chi
Ψ ψ, psi
Ω ω, omega