arthro-, arthr-

(Greek: joint, pertaining to the joints or connecting bone structures)

alloarthroplasty (s) (noun), alloarthroplasties (pl)
The surgical removal of part of a structure or bodily organ or the surgical reconstruction or replacement of a malformed or degenerated joint with another part: Dr. Watts, the orthopedic surgeon, explained the alloarthroplasty process to Mr. Jason, explaining that the replacement of his painful bone links were in fact a standard operation.
amphiarthrodial (adjective), more amphiarthrodial, most amphiarthrodial
Pertaining to connecting disks which allow slight motions, as that between the vertebrae: Jane's naturally upright posture was reinforced by the amphiarthrodial condition of her spine which allowed only a slight bending movement.

The skeleton in the anatomy class allowed the students to study the natural amphiarthrodial condition of the spinal column.

amphiarthrosis (s) (noun), amphiarthroses (pl)
1. A type of articulation between boney surfaces that are connected by ligaments or elastic cartilage which permit limited motion between the vertebrae: After her automobile accident, Pamela found her amphiarthrosis was impaired and she required extensive physiotherapy in order to restore some comfortable movements in her back.
2. A form of jointing consisting of two bones being united by a cartilage of some elasticity, which prevents one surface sliding onto the other, but permits a certain amount of movement; such as, in the contacts of the vertebral column, the carpus (eight bones forming the wrist), etc.: Hester benefited from the physiotherapy exercises she did every morning as she noticed the amphiarthrosis in her back was feeling more flexible and therefore more comfortable.
anarthrous (adjective), more anarthrous, most anarthrous
Descriptive of not having or appearing not to have moveable joints: After the skeletal connection in his knee was fused, Ambrose appeared to have an anarthrous leg or one without a proper functioning junction.
arthal (adjective), more arthal, most arthal
Pertaining to the point of juncture or union between two bones: After Sue slipped and fell down on the icy step, she experienced some arthal pain; especially, in her left wrist.
arthralgia, arthrodynia (s) (noun); arthralgias; arthrodynias (pl)
Severe pain between bone structures, especially one that is not inflammatory in character: The crushed toe on his left foot resulted in Pearson experiencing arthralgia, a considerable pain which was not caused by a disease.
arthrectomy (s) (noun), artherectomies (pl)
The excision or surgical operation to remove a bone structure: Years ago, many arthrectomies were performed without anesthesias or painkillers, the doctor giving the patient a piece of wood to bite on while the connection between certain bones was being removed.
arthrifuge (s) (noun), arthrifuges (pl)
Something used to eliminate or to relieve the suffering caused by gout, an inflammation of the joints: Dr. Clegg cautioned Jeff against drinking alcohol because it was NOT an arthrifuge or painkiller for his gout condition.
arthritic (adjective), more arthritic, most arthritic
Having or exhibiting the characteristics of inflammation or painfulness between bone connections brought about by injury, infection, etc.: Jillian's mother had an arthritic condition that limited her ability to play the piano because the areas between the bones in her fingers were too painful.
arthritis (s) (noun), arthritides (pl)
A medical condition characterized by the inflammation of connecting bone areas; usually, accompanied by pain, swelling, and, often, changes in structures: Lance was relieved to hear from Dr. Smith that his arthritis could be relieved with a good diet and prescribed exercises which would help to relieve the inflammation of the structures between the bones.
arthrocele (s) (noun), arthroceles (pl)
The swelling of bone contacts that are possibly caused by a hernia of a synovial membrane (tissues covered by fibrous and connective tissue) or pushing through into a connecting part of a membrane, causing severe discomfort: The pain in Hector's knee was caused by an arthrocele resulting in a swelling because a substance forced its way through the conjoining link in his leg.
arthrocentesis (s) (noun), arthrocenteses
A puncture of a linking area of the bones with a sterile needle in order to drain excessive accumulated fluid from it: Arthrocentesis is helpful in relieving swelling and pain in structures between the bones.

Due to a sports injury, Bruce had what was called "water-on-the-knee"; so, the doctor used arthrocentesis to draw off the liquid and relieve his discomfort.

arthroclasia (s) (noun), arthroclasias (pl)
The process by which force is used to break or to loosen an unnaturally fused connection between bones: Dr. Black, the orthopedic surgeon, had to use a rubber mallet to perform the arthroclasia on Jacob's elbow link, a process which is used for loosening a fused union of bones which is done under anesthesia.
arthrodesis (s) (noun), arthrodeses (pl)
The surgical immobilization of a joint or a joint fusion performed to relieve pain: Basically, arthrodesis is performed to secure an abnormal adhesion and rigidity of the bones of a skeletal connection to provide support in a diseased or injured hinge between bones.
arthrodia (s) (noun), arthrodias (pl)
Partially flat surfaces of joints which are lubricated by a secreted synovial or clear fluid: The articulating connecters in the spinal column are examples of arthrodia; that is, skeletal parts that allow gliding movements.