trans-, tran-, tra-

(Latin: across, through, over, beyond; on the far side of)

Don't confuse the tra- in this element with another tra- in "drag" or "draw". Trans- becomes tra- before the consonants -d, -j, -l, -m, -n, and -v.

electron transport chain (s) (noun), electron transport chains (pl)
1. A series of electron carriers which occurs within certain membranes; such as, the mitochondrial membrane, and produces energy for a cell.
2. The final common pathway of biological oxidation, the series of electron carriers in the inner mitochondrial membrane which pass electrons from reduced co-enzymes to molecular oxygen via sequential redox (oxidation-reduction) reactions coupled to proton transport, generating energy for biological processes.
electron transport phosphorylation
The conversion of inorganic phosphate into pyrophosphate from a reaction powered by energy in a transmembrane gradient of ions generated by an electron transport chain.

It occurs in respiratory metabolism and in some types of fermentation.

electron transport system
1. A series of reduction-oxidation reactions, beginning with increased strength and ending in oxygen, which constitutes the final stage of aerobic respiration.

It is also involved in the light reaction of photosynthesis.

2. The components of the final sequence of reactions in biological oxidations.

They are composed of a series of oxidizing agents arranged in an order of increasing strength and terminating in oxygen.

electroneural transport
The movement of charged, or uncharged, species across an energy-transducing membrane that does not result in a net transfer of charge.
electronic funds transfer system, EFTS (s) (noun), electronic funds transfer systems (pl)
1. A payment system in which the processing and communications necessary to effect monetary exchanges and the processing and communications necessary to effect financial exchanges and the processing and communications necessary for the production and distribution of the services that are incidental or related to the exchanges are dependent completely or in a large part on the use of electronics.
2. Electronic banking transactions conducted through computerized systems; such as, electronic funds transfer by automated-teller machines, intended to speed operations, to reduce costs, etc.

A customer inserts a magnetically encoded plastic card into the terminal, and then presses the appropriate keys to make deposits or withdrawals, transfer money to pay bills, and even to borrow money.

Such financial exchanges are dependent wholly or in a large part on the use of electronics.

electronic funds transfer, EFT
1. The use of telecommunications networks to transfer funds from one financial institution; such as, a bank, to another bank, or to withdraw funds from one's own account to deposit in a creditor's account.
2. A system for transferring monetary funds from one account or location to another one by computer.
electron-optical transistor
A transistor capable of responding in nanoseconds to both light and electrical signals.
electro-optical transistor
A transistor capable of responding in nanoseconds to both light and electrical signals.
electrostatic transducer, capacitor transducer, condenser transducer
1. A transducer consisting of a set electrode and a movable electrode, charged electrostatically in opposite polarity.

The motion of the movable electrode changes the capacitance between the electrodes and so makes the applied voltage change in proportion to the amplitude of the electrode's motion.

2. A transducer which consists of a capacitor, at least one plate of which can be set into vibration.

Its operation depends on the interaction between its electric field and a change in its electrostatic capacity.

electrostriction transducer, ceramic transducer
A transducer (any instrument; such as, a microphone or electric motor, that converts one form of energy into another) which depends on the production of an elastic strain in certain symmetric crystals when an electric field is applied, or, conversely, which produces a voltage when the crystal is deformed.
evapotranspiration (s) (noun), evapotranspirations (pl)
The total loss of water from a particular area, equal to the sum of the amount of water lost by the removal of moisture from the soil, and other surfaces, and the amount lost by the emission of water from plants: "Evapotranspiration involves the combined removal of water from surfaces by the loss of moisture and from the outward passage of fine particles of water along with carbon dioxide from plants."

"Evapotranspirations are the combined removals of water from surfaces by evaporation and from plants by transpiration."

exchange transfusion (s) (noun), replacement transfusion; exchange transfusions, replacement transfusions (pl)
The transfer and withdrawal of small amounts of blood that is repeated until the blood volume is almost entirely exchanged: "Exchange transfusions are used for infants who are born with hemolytic disease (the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells) and in patients with uremia (a form of blood poisoning caused by the accumulation in the blood of products that are normally eliminated in the urine)."
exsanguinotransfusion (s) (noun), exsanguinotransfusions (pl)
A replacement transfusion or an exchange transfusion involving repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood, until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged; used primarily in newborn infants with erythroblastosis fetalis (fetal anemia) and sometimes in patients with various other blood conditions.
fetal transfusion syndrome (s) (noun), fetal transfusion syndromes (pl)
A rare condition that occurs only in identical twins while the babies are still in the womb and involves the transfer of blood from one twin to the other one.
Xenogeneic transplantation; xenograft.