-ectomy, -ectome, -ectomize
(Greek: a suffix; cut, excise, surgical removal of)
2. Surgery involving the chiseling off of irregular bony edges of a joint cavity that interfere with normal motion.
This may be accomplished in the form of an injection of a local anesthetic into the ganglia concerned for temporary inducement or the injection of alcohol or phenol for permanent inducement.
An operation for treating Parkinson's disease and certain other diseases characterized by muscular rigidity, consisting of destroying a specific part of the corpus striatum by injecting it with a chemical, usually alcohol.
The globus pallidus is a pale-appearing spherical area in the brain. It is part of what is called the lentiform nucleus which, in turn, is part of the striate body, a component of the basal ganglia, the large masses of gray matter at the base of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain.
Cells within the globus pallidus may be preferentially damaged and perish in carbon monoxide poisoning, barbiturate intoxication, cyanide poisoning, hydrogen sulfide poisoning, profound prolonged hypoglycemia (low blood sugar or glucose), hypoxia (subnormal concentration of oxygen), hypotension (blood pressure that is below the normal), and Wilson disease (inherited disorder in which too much copper accumulates in the body).
2. The chiseling away of bony irregularities on the lips of a joint cavity that interfere with movements of the joint.
Gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy) is done while the patient is under general anesthesia. It is most commonly performed through four small incisions, using a small video camera called a laparoscope.
In laparoscopic surgery, the abdomen is inflated with carbon dioxide to provide more space for the surgeon to work.
The laparoscope is inserted through small incisions. The vessels and duct going to the gallbladder (cystic duct and artery) are identified, clipped, and cut. The gallbladder is removed and the incisions are closed.
In complicated cases, an open cholecystectomy may be performed. A larger incision is made just below the ribs on the right side of the abdomen.
As with laparoscopic surgery, the vessels and ducts going to the gallbladder are identified, clipped, and cut. The gallbladder is removed. The incisions are closed.
Laparoscopic surgery often has a lower rate of complications, a shorter hospital stay, and better cosmetic results than the open procedure.
The common bile duct is a tube for the passage of excretions or secretions that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum (first part of the small intestine).
The excision may be performed for neoplastic, traumatic, or inflammatory disease, and it is associated in most cases with a choledochoenterostomy.
The ciliary body refers to the tissue that includes the group of muscles that act on the eye lens to produce accommodation and the arterial circle of the iris.
2. The creation, by stereotaxic introduction of electrodes, of lesions in the gyrus cinguli for relief of intractable pain and in the treatment of psychiatric disorders and addictions.
Formerly, a unilateral or bilateral surgical excision of the anterior half of the cingulate (fiber bundle) gyrus (prominent rounded elevations in the brain), but now accomplished by electrolytic destruction of the anterior cingulate gyrus and callosum (fibers which unite).