-ectomy, -ectome, -ectomize
(Greek: a suffix; cut, excise, surgical removal of)
A fistula is an abnormal passage or communication, usually between two internal organs or leading from an internal organ to the surface of the body.
It is frequently designated according to the organs or parts with which it communicates; such as, anovaginal, brochocutaneous, hepatopleural, pulmonoperitoneal, rectovaginal, urethrovaginal, etc.
Such passages are frequently created experimentally for the purpose of obtaining body secretions for physiologic study.
An example would be opening the foramen widely in order to free the passage for a nerve, to remove constriction, and to gain access to a herniated disc which is to the side (outside) of the spinal canal.
The foramen is the natural passage or tunnel between the vertebrae of the spine through which a nerve root exits from the spinal canal on its path to a specific tissue or organ. When this foramen becomes narrowed, the nerve can become irritated or dysfunctional.
This is commonly seen in conditions; such as, spinal stenosis, lateral disc herniations, and facet arthritis.
Small pieces of pink colored skin that attach your lips, cheeks and tongue to your mouth.
Examples of frena include the piece of skin under your tongue which sticks out when you pick up your tongue, and the piece of skin which sticks out when you pull out your lips.
The fundus is the bottom or base of any hollow organ; such as, the fundus of the bladder; the fundus of the eye, etc.
Hypertrophy is the enlargement or overgrowth of an organ or part of the body due to increased size of the constituent cells, as in hypertrophic prostate.
The ganglion is a general term for a group of nerve cell bodies located outside the central nervous system, occasionally applied to certain nuclear groups within the brain or spinal cord; for example, the basal ganglia.
The sympathetic ganglion refers to the aggregation of cell bodies of primarily adrenergic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system. These ganglis are arranged in chainlike fashion on either side of the spinal cord.
The gasserian ganglion is a large ganglion, at the root of the trigeminal, or fifth cranial, nerve.
Trigeminal refers to the fifth pair of cranial nerves, which divide on each side of the head into three main branches distributed to the orbits, jaws, and parts of the mouth; trifacial.
An incision is made in the abdomen. A portion or all of the stomach (depending on the reason for the operation) is cut free from surrounding tissues, its blood supply is controlled and sewn shut, and then the stomach or part of it can be removed.
Depending on the type of operation, the intestine is then reconnected to the remaining stomach (in the case of a partial gastrectomy) or to the esophagus (in the case of a total gastrectomy).
The duodenum extends from the pylorus at the bottom of the stomach to the jejunum, the second part of the small intestine. The duodenum is a common site for the formation of peptic ulcers.
The duodenum began as the Greek dodeka-daktulon, "twelve fingers", because they apparently observed that the duodenum is about twelve finger-breadths long. In German, the popular term for duodenum is Zwölffingerdarm, the "twelve-finger intestine".
The jejunum is a part of the small intestine which is half-way down the small intestine between its duodenum and ileum sections.
The term jejunum derives from the Latin jejunus, "empty of food, meager" or "hungry". The ancient Greeks noticed at death that this part of the intestine was always empty of food; so, from that came the jejunum.
The Latin jejunus also gave rise to jejune, "lacking in nutritive value and devoid of substance, significance, or interest" and "that which is dull".
A jejune argument is one that is empty (like the jejunum) and totally devoid of interest.
This procedure is used to eliminate gingival or periodontal (gum) pockets or to provide an approach for extensive surgical interventions, and to gain access necessary to remove calculus within the pocket.
A glomus body is a component of the dermis layer of the skin, involved in body temperature regulation.
Glomus bodies are most numerous in the fingers and toes and they move blood away from the skin surface when exposed to cold temperature, thus preventing heat loss; and also, allowing maximum heat flow to the skin in warm weather to allow heat to dissipate.