pre-, prae-

(Latin: before [both in time and place])

The prefix prae- can actually be substituted for pre- because both of them are different spellings for the same prefix meaning "before".

prequel (s) (noun), prequels (pl)
1. A movie or novel set at a time preceding the action of an existing work, especially one that has achieved commercial success.
2. A book, film, etc., the events portrayed or the concerns of which precede those of an existing completed work.
prerequisite (s) (noun), prerequisites (pl)
1. An obligation to do something beforehand; especially, as a necessary condition before something else can take place: Usually citizenship is a prerequisite before a person can vote in elections.
2. An action or condition in which one thing must be done in order for something else to happen: The university specifies that the introductory course is a prerequisite for taking the advanced level course in the subject that Jill wants to major in.

The bank tells its customers that maintaining a good credit rating is a prerequisite for applying for a loan.

Necessary before an intended result can be accomplished.
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Something that is necessary in order to produce a desired result.
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prerogative (s) (noun), prerogatives (pl)
1. A right reserved exclusively by a particular person or group occupying a particular rank or position; especially, a hereditary or official right: As president of the company, Mr. Smith felt that he had the prerogative of choosing the one who would replace him when he retired.
2. A privilege or right that allows a particular person or group to give orders or to make decisions and judgments: Well, if Tom would rather sell his football tickets instead of using them, that's his prerogative.
3. The right conferred by a natural advantage that places someone in a position of superiority: Getting a seat on a full bus is one of the prerogatives of being a senior citizen.
4. The power or right of a monarch or government to do something or to be exempt from something: Parking in normally restrictive areas in the city is a prerogative of Mayor Dawson's chauffeur.
5. Etymology: from Old French prerogative, Medieval Latin (about 700-1500) prerogativa, "special right"; from Latin prærogativa, "prerogative, previous choice or election"; originally (with tribus, centuria), "unit of 100 voters who by lot voted first in the Roman comita"; feminine of prærogativus, "chosen to vote first"; from prærogere, "to ask before others"; from præ-, "before" + rogare, "to ask".
An exclusive right or a superior advantage.
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presage (s), presages (pl) (noun forms)
1. A sign or warning of some future event.
2. A feeling that a particular thing, often something unpleasant, is about to happen.
presbinsomnia (s) (noun), presbinsomnias (pl)
A condition of old age sleeplessness.
presbyasomnia (s) (noun), presbyasomnias (pl)
Sleeplessness that exists as a result of old age.
Rarely used terms for geriatrics; medical treatment of the aged.
presbycardia, senile heart disease
1. Impaired cardiac function attributed to the aging process, occurring in association with recognizable changes of senescence in the body and in the absence of convincing evidence of other forms of heart disease.
2. Involutional aging changes of the myocardium, with associated pigmentation of the heart.

It decreases cardiac reserve but rarely produces heart failure itself.

presbycusis [presbyacusia] (s) (noun), presbycuses (pl)
Dullness of hearing, which is a characteristic of old age, including the loss of the ability to perceive or to discriminate sounds: "A person's presbycusis usually occurs progressively as he or she ages."

"Symptoms of presbycusis are gradual hearing loss and tinnitus."

"The normal process of aging produces changes in the cochlea and the cochlear nerves; in other words, damage in the inner ear, and results in permanent sensorineural hearing loss."

"Presbycusis most often occurs in both ears and because the loss of hearing is so gradual, people with presbycusis may not realize that their hearing is diminishing."

Presbycusis is common, affecting a third of people between 65 and 75 years and up to a half of people 75 and over."

"The only treatment for presbycusis is the wearing of hearing aids which can be worn in the ears or behind the ears."

"Other visual communicative technique; such as, lipreading or watching facial expressions are also helpful in coping with hearing loss."

—Primarily compiled from information in
The Consumer's Medical Desk Reference; by Charles B. Inlander
and the Staff of the People's Medical Society;
The Stonesong Press, Inc.; New York; 1995; page 99.
presbyderma, presbydermia
1. The skin changes of middle and old age.
2. Cutaneous (skin) changes associated with the middle and later years of life.
1. A condition characterized by alteration in motor function of the esophagus as a result of degenerative changes occurring with advancing age.
2. A disorder in the elderly characterized by altered motility of the esophagus.
presbymnemia (s) (noun) (no plural)
Impairment of memory that is characteristic of old age: Since Albert was already 99 years old, it was no wonder that he was afflicted with presbymnemia and couldn't remember certain dates and places where he had been when he was younger.
Silliness sometimes accompanying old age.
1. Impairment of mental faculties that are characteristic of old age.
2. Its principal characteristics are marked confusional disorientation, confabulation, mistakes in identity, and agitation without the accomplishment of any objective.

Presbyophrenic confabulations typically show a poverty, monotony, puerility, and naiveté of content. Because ethical conduct is preserved for a relatively long time, the patient is able to fit into limited social contacts, and particularly so since his/her affect tends toward the euphoric and the amiable.

presbyopia, presbyopic; presbytia, presbytic, presbytism
1. A form of farsightedness occurring after middle age, caused by a diminished elasticity of the crystalline lens.
2. The physiological loss of accommodation in the eyes in advancing age, said to begin when the near point has receded beyond 22 cm (9 inches).
3. The loss of the eye's ability to change focus to see near objects.
4. Eyesight characteristic of older people.

The reasons for this loss of the power of accommodation are not yet fully known. It is conventionally said to be a result of the lenses of the eyes becoming less elastic with time.

Presbyopia is associated with aging; however, it happens with everyone. The first sign is often the necessity to hold reading material farther away in order to be able to focus on the contents.

The term presbyopia is said to come from the Greek for "elderly vision".

Related before-word units: ante-; antero-; anti-; pro-.

Related "time" units: aevum, evum; archaeo-, archeo-; Calendars; chrono-; horo-; Quotes: Time; tempo-.