Word Entries containing the term:
abdominal adhesion (s) (noun)
, abdominal adhesions (pl)
Scar tissue inside the peritoneum of the abdominal organs, usually involving the intestines and causing an obstruction: The abdominal adhesion may be a result of surgery or the result of a trauma or chronic inflammation. The patient with this condition experiences a visceral distention, pain, nausea, vomiting, plus an increased pulse rate which might require surgery to improve the person's situation.
abdominal aorta (s) (noun)
, aortas: aortae (pl)
The largest arterial conduit, or artery, in the abdominal cavity: The abdominal aorta
refers to the portion of the largest artery in the body below the diaphragm to the bifurcation, the right and left common iliac arteries or the upper and largest, part of the bony pelvic girdle.
It supplies blood to the abdominal viscera, pelvic organs, and lower extremities.
The abdominal aorta provides blood to the abdominal structures, such as the testes, ovaries, kidneys, and stomach.
abdominal aortic aneurysm, AAA (s) (noun)
, abdominal aortic aneurysms (pl)
A distended and weakened area in the wall of the abdominal aorta: Abdominal aortic aneurysm
is more common in those who suffer from atherosclerosis or the progressive narrowing and hardening of the arteries over time.
This is known to occur to some degree with aging, but other risk factors that accelerate this process have been identified, including high cholesterol, high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, and family history for atherosclerotic disease.
abdominal aortography (s) (noun)
, abdominal aortographies (pl)
A radiographic (x-ray or gamma ray) study of the abdominal aorta after the introduction of a contrast medium through a catheter in the femoral artery: After Janet's doctor diagnosed her, she went to hospital to be examined and have an abdominal aortography performed.
abdominal aponeurosis (s) (noun)
, abdominal aponeuroses (pl)
The conjoined sheet-like tendons of the oblique and transverse muscles of the abdomen: In Susan's class at college she learned about abdominal aponeurosis and why the fibrous membrane was necessary for the functions to the body.
abdominal artery (s) (noun)
, abdominal arteries (pl)
One of the blood vessels that branch from the forward surface of the abdominal aorta to supply the abdominal part of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder: The celiac artery supplies the front part of the intestine, the superior mesenteric artery supplies the middle intestine, and the inferior or lower mesenteric artery supplies the back section of the intestine, and altogether are termed the abdominal arteries.
abdominal bandage, ABD pad (s) (noun)
; abdominal bandages; ABO pads (pl)
A broad multilayered absorbent gauze or other material commonly used after abdominal surgery: After her operation, Jane's stomach area was protected by an abdominal bandage.
abdominal binder (s) (noun)
, abdominal binders (pl)
A bandage or elasticized wrap that is applied around the lower part of the torso to support the abdomen: An abdominal binder is sometimes applied after surgery to decrease discomfort, and so it increases a patient's ability to begin ambulatory or walking activities and and to increase recovery.
abdominal breathing (s) (noun) (no pl)
1. Inhalation and exhalation in which the abdominal muscles perform the major part of the respiratory effort:
Such abdominal breathing
may be seen in various abnormal conditions, such as a cerebrovascular accident, a spinal cord injury, and coma.
Singers practice abdominal breathing so they can enhance their vocal performances.
2. The process of inhaling and exhaling is supplemented by abdominal wall muscles that compress the contents of the abdomen and indirectly raise the diaphragm; diaphragmatic breathing:
This kind of deep breathing, or abdominal breathing
, is shown by the expansion of the abdomen rather than the chest when breathing.
Abdominal breathing is generally considered a healthier and fuller way to ingest oxygen, and it is often used as a therapy for hyperventilation, anxiety disorders and stuttering.
abdominal cavity (ab DAHM uh nuhl KAHV i tee) (s) (noun)
, abdominal cavities (pl)
1. The space between the stomach area and the spine which contains a number of crucial organs: The abdominal cavity
includes the lower part of the esophagus, the stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, bladder, as well as associated tissues and blood and lymphatic vessels all of which are surrounded by the flat band of fibrous tissue below the skin that covers the underlying tissues and separates the different layers of tissue.
2. Etymology: from Latin abdomen, abdominis
, "belly" and from medical Latin abdominalis
The stomach (which is in the abdominal area) is lined with thirty-five million glands that produce about three quarts (2.85 liters) of gastric juices daily. Hydrochloric acid makes up roughly five percent of these juices and, together with other acids and various enzymes, constantly works to digest food particles.
—Compiled from The Body Almanac by Neil McAleer;
Doubleday & Company, Inc.; Garden City, New York; 1985; page 186.
abdominal crisis (s) (noun)
, abdominal crises (pl)
Severe stomach pain resulting from several possible causes: Abdominal crisis usually refers to pain which is produced by sickle cell anemia, bowel obstruction and / or perforation, hemorrhage, ectopic pregnancy, among other sicknesses.
abdominal crunch (s) (noun)
, abdominal crunches (pl)
A physical exercise similar to a sit-up in which the head and shoulders are raised slightly off the ground from a supine position or while lying on the back: At the fitness studio the trainer watched Mary as she performed the abdominal crunch and gave her tips on how to improve her movements.
abdominal decompression (s) (noun)
, abdominal decompressions (pl)
An obstetric technique in which the abdomen is enclosed in a chamber which permits surrounding pressures to be controlled during the first stage of child labor: Abdominal decompression is intended to reduce pain and to shorten labor during the birth of a child.
abdominal delivery (s) (noun)
, abdominal deliveries (pl)
Delivery of a child through a surgical incision in the abdomen and uterus: Abdominal deliveries, also known as "cesarean sections," account for about one fifth of all births in the U.S.
abdominal examination (s) (noun)
, abdominal examinations (pl)
1. A hands-on evaluation of the abdominal cavity to identify abnormalities, if there are any, based on a change in size, shape, consistency, or sound on percussion of the organs found inside: Because Voni was experiencing pains in her stomach, Dr. Black performed an abdominal examination
to see what was causing Voni's symptoms of discomfort.
2. The physical evaluation of a patient's midsection with visual inspection, auscultation, percussion, and palpation: An abdominal examination
includes the visual examination of the normally oval shape of the abdominal surface while the patient is lying on his or her back which may reveal abnormal surface features indicating the effects of a disease, surgery, or injury.
Below the surface, tumors, fluid accumulation, or hypertrophy of the liver or spleen may be seen as an abnormal surface feature.
Auscultation, or listening to sounds within the body, usually with a stethoscope, may reveal vascular sounds that provide information about arterial disorders, such as aortic aneurysms of the aorta and bowel sounds that indicate intestinal function.
In a pregnant patient, auscultation can detect fetal heartbeat and blood circulation in the placenta.
Percussion, the tapping of a part of the body for diagnostic purposes, helps to determination the condition of internal organs while palpation, or feeling the size, shape, or firmness of body parts, is used to detect areas of tenderness or rigidity, muscle tone and skin condition, and the shapes and sizes of organs or masses under the surface of the skin.
abdominal fascia (s) (noun)
, abdominal fasciae (pl)
A sheet or band of connective tissue covering or binding together parts of the body, such as muscles or organs, that form part of the general layer which lines the walls of the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs: The abdominal fascia is subdivided into "visceral abdominal fascia" (internal organs of the abdomen), "parietal abdominal fascia" (connective tissue lining the wall of the abdominal cavity), and "extraperitoneal fascia" (thin layer of connective tissue and adipose or fat tissue).
abdominal fistula (s) (noun)
, fistulas; fistulae (pl)
1. A tract leading from a hollow viscera organ to the external surface: The abdominal fistula
that had to be performed on Simon was necessary as a result of an injury he had had.
2. An abnormal passage or tract leading from an abdominal organ to the external surface of the abdomen: In a colostomy, an abdominal fistula
extending from the bowel to an opening on the surface of the abdomen is surgically created.
A colostomy is a medical operation in which part of the colon is removed and a hole is made in the stomach through which solid waste can leave the body.
abdominal gestation (s) (noun)
, abdominal gestations (pl)
Development of a fetus outside the uterus in the abdominal cavity: An abdominal gestation is a great hazard to the health of the mother because of excessive internal bleeding.
abdominal girth (s) (noun)
, abdominal girths (pl)
1. The circumference of the abdomen, usually measured at the umbilicus, or also called belly button: The calculation of the abdominal girth
is used to assess the growth of a baby, which is found to be an important indicator of normal baby proportions.
2. The measurement of the distance around the abdomen at a specific point, usually at the level of the belly button or navel: Measuring abdominal girth
is used to diagnose and to monitor:
- Obesity, or the build up of fluid in the abdomen, often caused by liver failure or heart failure.
- Buildup of intestinal gas, usually caused by the blockage or an obstruction in the intestines.
abdominal hernia (s) (noun)
, abdominal hernias; abdominal herniae (pl)
A rupture in smooth muscle tissue protruding through a defect or weakened portion of the abdominal wall: An umbilical hernia is one type of abdominal hernia
, or an abnormal protrusion of internal abdominal contents into a defect in the umbilical area which is common in a newborn child.
There are various hernias, as an "inguinal hernia", "umbilical hernia", or "spigelian hernia", in which an anatomical part, such as a section of the intestine, protrudes through an opening, tear, or weakness in the abdominal wall musculature which is a system or an arrangement of muscles in a body or a body part.
abdominal hysterectomy (s) (noun)
, abdominal hysterectomies (pl)
The surgical removal of the uterus through an incision made in the abdominal wall: When an abdominal hysterectomy
is performed, a transverse incision is accomplished by penetration near the pelvis area, which is comparable to the incision for a caesarean section.
As opposed to an abdominal hysterectomy, a vaginal hysterectomy refers to the removal of the uterus through a surgical incision within the vagina. With a vaginal hysterectomy, the scar from the procedure is not outwardly visible.
abdominal inguinal ring (s) (noun)
, abdominal inguinal rings (pl)
The internal and upper opening of the inguinal (groin) canal, bounded inferiorly by the inguinal (groin) ligament, medially by the inferior epigastric vessels, and above and laterally by the lower free border of the transversus abdominis muscle which is the broad, flat muscle of the abdomen: When Tim went to his doctor for a check-up, the abdominal inguinal ring was also examined.
abdominal muscle (s) (noun)
, abdominal muscles (pl)
One of a large group of muscles in the front of the abdomen that assists in maintaining regular breathing movements, supports the muscles of the spine while lifting, and which keeps abdominal organs in place: Abdominal muscles, informally known as the "abs", are the target of many exercises, such as sit-ups.
abdominal muscles (pl) (noun)
1. A large group of muscles in the front of the abdomen that assists in the regular breathing movement and supports the muscles of the spine while lifting and keeping abdominal organs, such as the intestines in place.
2. The group of four muscles which make up the abdominal wall consists of:
- The external oblique (the most superficial of the four, a muscle from the fifth to twelfth ribs) whose fibers are directed downward and medially from the lower ribs to the linea alba (a fibrous band) and pelvis.
- The internal oblique (a slanting, small, thin, deep muscle of the abdomen), whose fibers are directed upward and medially from the iliac crest (hip bone) and lumbodorsal fascia (loose tissue) to the lower ribs.
- The rectus abdominis, a vertically oriented muscle from the crest of the pubis (pelvis) to the cartilages of the fifth, sixth, and seventh ribs and xiphoid process.
- The transversus abdominis, whose fibers are oriented transversely (sideways or at an angle across something).
These muscles participate in a variety of functions, including flexion, side bending and rotation of the trunk, stabilization of the trunk in the upright posture, the expiratory phase of respiration, coughing, and Valsalva's maneuver.
The term "Valsalva's maneuver" is a maneuver in which the patient holds his or her breath or gives a voluntary cough or sneeze to produce pain.
These activities of holding the breath, coughing, or sneezing increase the pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid which enlarges the pressure against the already pressured nerve, causing pain and numbness. The location of this intensified pain also contributes to the medical diagnosis.
abdominal nephrectomy (s) (noun)
, abdominal nephrectomies (pl)
The surgical removal of a kidney through an abdominal incision: An abdominal nephrectomy is made by cutting through the anterior or front of the abdominal wall which is performed either by a transperitoneal (across the smooth serous tissue membrane which lines the cavity of the abdomen) or by an extraperitoneal (outside the tissue membrane) technique.
abdominal pain (s) (noun)
, abdominal pains (pl)
1. Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the intestinal region: Abdominal pain is generally associated with functional disorders, tissue injuries, or diseases.
2. Agony in the visceral cavity: Abdominal pain can be acute or chronic. It may reflect a major problem with one of the organs in the abdomen, such as appendicitis or a perforated intestine, or it may result from a fairly minor problem, such as an excess buildup of intestinal gas.
abdominal paracentesis (s) (noun)
, abdominal paracenteses (pl)
1. The surgical puncture of the abdominal cavity for the removal of fluid for diagnosis or treatment: Joan had to go to the hospital to have an abdominal paracentesis performed because she had excess liquid in the visceral area.
2. A puncture of the wall of a fluid-filled cavity with a hollow needle to draw off the contents for medical diagnosis: A trocar is used during an abdominal paracentesis to obtain some ascitic fluid for examination from a patient while he or she is in a sitting position.
abdominal pressure (s) (noun)
, abdominal pressures (pl)
Pressure surrounding the bladder from rectal, gastric, or intraperitoneal force, or from the area that contains the abdominal organs:
Jackie was suffering from abdominal pressure and so she went to her doctor for an examination.
abdominal quadrant (s) (noun)
, abdominal quadrants (pl)
Any of four topographic areas of the abdomen divided by two imaginary lines, one vertical and one horizontal, intersecting at the umbilicus, or belly button. as determined from the front of the body.
The divisions are the left upper quadrant (LUQ), the left lower quadrant (LLQ), the right upper quadrant (RUQ), and the right lower quadrant (RLQ).
- Left upper quadrant (LUQ): left lobe of liver, stomach, transverse colon, splenic flexure, pancreas, left kidney, and spleen.
- Left lower quadrant (LLQ): small intesine, left ureter, sigmoid flexure, descending colon, bladder if distended, left spermatic duct in the male; left ovary and left tube, and uterus if enlarged, in the female.
- Richt upper quadrant (RUQ): right lobe of the liver, gallbladder, part of transverse colon, part of pylorus, hepatic flexure, right kidney, and duodenum.
- Right lower quadrant (RLQ): cecum, ascending colon, small intestine, appendix, bladder if distended, right ureter, right spermatic duct in the male; right ovary and right tube, and uterus if enlarged, in the female.
abdominal reflex (s) (noun)
, abdominal reflexes (pl)
An involuntary contraction of the muscles of the abdominal wall: Abdominal reflexes
occur when the overlying skin is stimulated by stroking or scratching or by tapping neighboring bony structures.
A lack of these reflexes indicates damage to the pyramidal tract or the projection neurones in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus of the brain or two groups of nerve fibers that participate in the complex and delicate coordination of motor activity arising in the brain and passing down through the spinal cord to motor cells.
abdominal rescue (s) (noun)
, abdominal rescues (pl)
The emergency cesarean delivery of a baby endanged during child labor or unsuccessful vaginal birth: Indications for the need of an abdominal rescue include fetal distress (fetal hypoxia or low oxygen levels in the fetus) associated with dystocia (difficult or painful childbirth labor or delivery), arrested descent (interruption in the labor process), abruptio placentae (placenta prematurely separating from the wall of the uterus), or umbilical cord prolapse (slipping or falling out of place).
abdominal sponge (s) (noun)
, abdominal sponges (pl)
A flat absorbent material from 1/2 to 1 inch (1.27 to 2.54 cm) thick, 3 to 6 in. (7.62 to 15.24 cm) in diameter, used as packing to prevent closing or obstruction by intrusion of viscera and for preventing tissue injury: During the operation, abdominal sponges were used to soak up excess fluids.
abdominal ultrasound test (s) (noun)
, abdominal ultrasound tests (pl)
An ultrasonic exam which provides accurate visualization of the abdominal aorta, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, biliary ducts, kidneys, ureters, and bladder: An abdominal ultrasound test is used to diagnose and locate cysts, tumors, calculi, and malformations, to document the progression of various diseases, and to guide the insertion of instruments during surgical procedures.
abdominal viscera (pl) (noun)
The soft internal organs contained or enclosed within the abdominal cavity: The abdominal viscera include the stomach, liver, intestines, spleen, pancreas, and parts of the urinary and reproductive tracts.
abdominal wall (s) (noun)
, abdominal walls (pl)
1. The outer margins of the abdomen, extending from the osteocartilaginous thoracic cage to the pelvis: Although its major part is muscular, the abdominal wall
consists of at least seven layers: the skiln, subcutaneous fat, deep fascia, abdominal muscles, transversalis fascia, extraperitoneal fat, and the parietal peritoneum.
2. The lining of the abdomen, consisting partly of bone but mostly of muscle: Several sets of muscles support and propel the torso or body, for example the abdominal wall
muscles which help transfer force between the upper and lower body, and they also protect the delicate internal organs, and their most important function is to support the back.
The muscles of the torso extend in several directions and they help to maintain the posture and aid the spinal muscles when bending, twisting, and when doing other movements.
celiosalpingectomy, abdominal salpingectomy (s) (noun)
; celiosalpingectomies; abdominal salpingectomies (pl)
The removal of one or both fallopian tubes through an abdominal incision: June had to have a celiosalpingectomy, or also called an abdominal salpingectomy, performed by a surgeon in which the pair of slender tubes that extend from each ovary to the uterus had to be removed.
internal abdominal oblique muscle (s) (noun)
, internal abdominal oblique muscles (pl)
1. A small, thin, deep muscle of the abdomen which is a diagonally arranged abdominal muscle on either side of the torso:
The internal abdominal oblique muscle
runs diagonally opposite and underneath the external oblique.
The internal abdominal oblique muscle has a quadrilateral form originating from the hip bone, the crest of the ilium, and extending to the cartilage of the lower ribs which are the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth ribs.
It is innervated by the lower thoracic nerves and supplies the intercostal and lumbar arteries and this muscle protects a weak point in the abdominal wall and works with the external oblique to help twist the torso.
2. One of a pair of anterolateral muscles of the abdomen, which are in front and away from the midline, lying under the external oblique muscle in the lateral and ventral part of the abdominal wall; The internal abdominal oblique muscle
is smaller and thinner than the external oblique muscle and it functions to compress the abdominal contents and assists in micturition, defecation, emesis, parturition, and forced expiration.
Both muscles acting together serve to flex the vertebral column, drawing the costal cartilages toward the pubis. One side acting alone bends the vertebral column laterally and rotates it, drawing the shoulder of the opposite side downward.
Concerning the section inside the abdomen: Because of the terrible accident, Frank suffered from an intra-abdominal bleeding which required an immediate operation.