A stomach ache has been defined as an abominable pain in the abdominal area.
The condition may be a result of surgery or the result of a trauma or chronic inflammation. The patient with this condition experiences an abdominal distention, pain, nausea, vomiting, plus an increased pulse rate which might require surgery to improve the person's situation.
This term refers to the portion of the aorta (largest artery in the body) below the diaphragm to the bifurcation (split into two parts) into the right and left common iliac arteries or the upper and largest, part of the bony pelvic girdle.
It supplies blood to the abdominal viscera, pelvic organs, and lower extremities.
The abdominal aorta provides blood to the abdominal structures; such as, the testes, ovaries, kidneys, and stomach.
This is known to occur to some degree with aging, but other risk factors that accelerate this process have been identified; including: high cholesterol, high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, and family history for atherosclerotic disease.
The celiac artery supplies the front part of the intestine, the superior mesenteric artery supplies the middle intestine, and the inferior (lower) mesenteric artery supplies the back section of the intestine.
Such breathing may be seen in various abnormal conditions; such as, cerebrovascular accident, spinal cord injury, and coma.
Singers practice this method so they can enhance their vocal performances.2. Breathing which is supplemented by abdominal wall muscles that compress the contents of the abdomen and indirectly raise the diaphragm.
This kind of deep breathing is shown by the expansion of the abdomen rather than the chest when breathing.
It is generally considered a healthier and fuller way to ingest oxygen, and it is often used as a therapy for hyperventilation, anxiety disorders and stuttering.
2. Etymology: from Latin abdomen, abdominis, "belly" and from medical Latin abdominalis.
The stomach (which is in the abdominal area) is lined with thirty-five million glands that produce about three quarts (2.85 liters) of gastric juices daily. Hydrochloric acid makes up roughly five percent of these juices and, together with other acids and various enzymes, constantly works to digest food particles.
It usually refers to pain which occurs during sickle cell anemia crisis or that results from syphilis.
The technique is intended to reduce pain and to shorten labor during the birth of a child or children.
2. An obstetric procedure which involves the delivery of the fetus through an abdominal incision.
Cesarian sections account for about one fifth of all births in the U.S.
2. The physical evaluation of a patient's abdomen with visual inspection, auscultation, percussion, and palpation.
The visual examination of the normally oval shape of the abdominal surface while the patient is lying on his or her back may reveal abnormal surface features indicating the effects of a disease, surgery, or injury.
Below the surface tumors, fluid accumulation, or hypertrophy of the liver or spleen may be seen as an abnormal surface feature.
Auscultation or listening to sounds within the body (usually with a stethoscope) may reveal vascular sounds that provide information about arterial disorders; such as, aortic aneurysms (any swelling) of the aorta and bowel sounds that indicate intestinal function.
In a pregnant patient, auscultation can detect fetal heartbeat and blood circulation in the placenta.
Percussion (tapping a part of the body for diagnostic purposes) helps to determination the condition of internal organs while palpation (feeling the size, shape, or firmness of body parts) is used to detect areas of tenderness or rigidity, muscle tone and skin condition, and the shapes and sizes of organs or masses under the surface of the skin.
It is subdivided into visceral abdominal fascia (internal organs of the abdomen), parietal abdominal fascia (connective tissue lining the wall of the abdominal cavity), and extraperitoneal fascia (thin layer of connective tissue and adipose or fat tissue).
2. An abnormal passage or tract leading from an abdominal organ to the external surface of the abdomen.
In a colostomy, a passage from the bowel to an opening on the surface of the abdomen is surgically created.
A colostomy is a medical operation in which part of the colon is removed and a hole is made in the stomach through which solid waste can leave the body.
2. The implantation of a fertilized ovum outside the uterus but within the peritoneal cavity or the space within the abdomen that contains the intestines, the stomach, and the liver and which is held together by thin membranes.
3. An ectopic pregnancy, in which the fertilized egg implants in a location outside the uterus where it attempts to develop.
The word ectopic means "in an abnormal place or position" where the most common site is the fallopian tube, the tube that normally carries eggs from the ovary to the uterus.
In this case, ectopic pregnancy can also occur in the ovary, the abdomen, and the cervical canal (the opening from the uterus to the vaginal canal).
The phrases tubal pregnancy, ovarian pregnancy, cervical pregnancy, and abdominal pregnancy all refer to the specific areas of an ectopic pregnancy.
2. The measurement of the distance around the abdomen at a specific point, usually at the level of the belly button (navel).
Measuring abdominal girth is used to diagnose and monitor:
- Obesity or the build up of fluid in the abdomen, often caused by liver failure or heart failure.
- Buildup of intestinal gas, usually caused by the blockage or an obstruction in the intestines.
An umbilical hernia is an example of a type of abdominal hernia or an abnormal protrusion of internal abdominal contents into a defect in the umbilical area which is common in the newborn child.2. Any of various hernias (as an inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, or spigelian hernia) in which an anatomical part; such as, a section of the intestine that protrudes through an opening, tear, or weakness in the abdominal wall musculature (a system or an arrangement of muscles in a body or a body part).
A vaginal hysterectomy refers to the removal of the uterus through a surgical incision within the vagina, as opposed to an abdominal hysterectomy. With a vaginal hysterectomy, the scar from the procedure is not outwardly visible.
Abdominal muscles are the target of many exercises; such as, sit-ups. Abdominal muscles are informally known as the abs.
2. The group of four muscles which make up the abdominal wall, consisting of:
- The external oblique (the most superficial of the four, a muscle from the fifth to twelfth ribs) whose fibers are directed downward and medially from the lower ribs to the linea alba (a fibrous band) and pelvis.
- The internal oblique (a slanting, small, thin, deep muscle of the abdomen), whose fibers are directed upward and medially from the iliac crest (hip bone) and lumbodorsal fascia (loose tissue) to the lower ribs.
- The rectus abdominis, a vertically oriented muscle from the crest of the pubis (pelvis) to the cartilages of the fifth, sixth, and seventh ribs and xiphoid process.
- The transversus abdominis, whose fibers are oriented transversely (sideways or at an angle across something).
These muscles participate in a variety of functions, including flexion, side bending and rotation of the trunk, stabilization of the trunk in the upright posture, the expiratory phase of respiration, coughing, and Valsalva's maneuver.
The term Valsalva's maneuver is a maneuver in which the patient holds his or her breath or gives a voluntary cough or sneeze to produce pain.
These activities, holding the breath, coughing, or sneezing; increase the pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid which enlarges the pressure against the already pressured nerve, causing pain and numbness. The location of this intensified pain also contributes to the medical diagnosis.
2. Removal of the kidney by an incision through the anterior or front of the abdominal wall; performed by either a transperitoneal (across the smooth serous tissue membrane which lines the cavity of the abdomen) or extraperitoneal (outside the tissue membrane) technique.
2. Pain in the abdominal cavity.
Abdominal pain can be acute or chronic. It may reflect a major problem with one of the organs in the abdomen: such as, appendicitis or a perforated intestine, or it may result from a fairly minor problem; such as, excess buildup of intestinal gas.
2. A puncture of the wall of a fluid-filled cavity with a hollow needle to draw off the contents for medical diagnosis.
The divisions are the left upper quadrant (LUQ), the left lower quadrant (LLQ), the right upper quadrant (RUQ), and the right lower quadrant (RLQ).
- Left upper quadrant (LUQ): left lobe of liver, stomach, transverse colon, splenic flexure, pancreas, left kidney, and spleen.
- Left lower quadrant (LLQ): small intesine, left ureter, sigmoid flexure, descending colon, bladder if distended, left spermatic duct in the male; left ovary and left tube, and uterus if enlarged, in the female.
- Richt upper quadrant (RUQ): right lobe of the liver, gallbladder, part of transverse colon, part of pylorus, hepatic flexure, right kidney, and duodenum.
- Right lower quadrant (RLQ): cecum, ascending colon, small intestine, appendix, bladder if distended, right ureter, right spermatic duct in the male; right ovary and right tube, and uterus if enlarged, in the female.
Lacking these reflexes indicates damage to the pyramidal tract or the projection neurones in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus of the brain or two groups of nerve fibers that participate in the complex and delicate coordination of motor activity arising in the brain and passing down through the spinal cord to motor cells.
An indication for the need of surgical intervention include fetal distress (fetal hypoxia or low oxygen levels in the fetus) associated with dystocia (difficult or painful childbirth labor or delivery), arrested descent (interruption in the labor process), abruptio placentae (placenta prematurely separating from the wall of the uterus), or umbilical cord prolapse (slipping or falling out of place).
This test is used to diagnose and locate cysts, tumors, calculi, and malformations; to document the progression of various diseases; and to guide the insertion of instruments during surgical procedures.
Although its major part is muscular, the abdominal wall consists of at least seven layers: the skiln, subcutaneous fat, deep fascia; abdominal muscles, transversalis fascia, extraperitoneal fat, and the parietal peritoneum.2. The lining of the abdomen, which consists partly of bone but mostly of muscle.
Several sets of muscles support and propel the torso or body; for example, the abdominal wall muscles help transfer force between the upper and lower body, and they also protect the delicate internal organs their most important function is to support the back.
The muscles of the torso extend in several directions and they help to maintain the posture and aid the spinal muscles when bending, twisting, and when doing other movements.
2. A condition in which the embryo or fetus continues to grow in the abdominal cavity after its expulsion from the tube or other site of its primary development.
It runs diagonally opposite underneath the external oblique.
It has a quadrilateral form originating from the hip bone (crest of the ilium), and extending to the cartilage of the lower ribs (the tenth, elenenth, and twelfth ribs).
It is innervated by the lower thoracic nerves and supplies the intercostal and lumbar arteries and this muscle protects a weak point in the abdominal wall and works with the external oblique to help twist the torso.2. One of a pair of anterolateral (front and away from the middle line) muscles of the abdomen, lying under the external oblique muscle in the lateral and ventral part of the abdominal wall.
It is smaller and thinner than the external oblique muscle and it functions to compress the abdominal contents and assists in micturition, defecation, emesis, parturition, and forced expiration.
Both muscles acting together serve to flex the vertebral column, drawing the costal cartilages toward the pubis.
One side acting alone bends the vertebral column laterally and rotates it, drawing the shoulder of the opposite side downward.