nephr-, nephro-, nephri-, -nephric

(Greek: nephros; kidney, kidneys)

abdominal nephrectomy
1. The surgical removal of a kidney through an abdominal incision.
2. Removal of the kidney by an incision through the anterior or front of the abdominal wall; performed by either a transperitoneal (across the smooth serous tissue membrane which lines the cavity of the abdomen) or extraperitoneal (outside the tissue membrane) technique.
anephric (adjective) (not comparable)
Having no kidneys at birth: With sadness, Dr. Johnson told the parents that their anaphoric baby could not survive because its fetal kidneys failed to develop.
anephrogenesis (s) (noun), anephrogeneses (pl)
Congenital absence of kidney tissue: Anephrogenesis is the physical condition of being born without kidneys.
archinephric
A reference to the first of three segments of the kidney, functional in some vertebrate embryos but not in adults.
archinephros
1. The paired excretory organ of primitive vertebrates and the larvae of hagfishes and caecilians.
2. The earliest and simplest kind of excretory organ in the developing vertebrate embryo; however, for humans and other mammals the structure is nonfunctional.
3. In the embryos of higher vertebrates, a vestigial structure consisting of a series of tortuous tubules emptying into the cloaca (terminal part of the gut) by way of the primary nephric duct.

In the human embryo, the archinephros is a very rudimentary and temporary structure, followed by the mesonephros (second of the three excretory organs that develop in a vertebrate embryo, becoming the functioning kidney in fish and amphibians but replaced by the metanephros in higher vertebrates) and still later by the metanephros (third and final excretory organ that develops in a vertebrate embryo).

In birds, reptiles, and mammals, the metanephros replaces the mesonephros as the functional excretory organ and develops into the adult kidney.

arteriolonephrosclerosis, arteriolar nephrosclerosis
1. Scarring of the kidney because of arteriolar sclerosis (hardening from inflammation and in diseases of the interstitial substance) resulting from chronic hypertension.
2. The destructive changes that occur in the blood vessels of the kidney as a result of severe hypertension (malignant hypertension or a severe form of acute hypertension that results in the abrupt rise in blood pressure).

Prolonged hypertension can result in renal failure.

arterionephrosclerosis, arterial nephrosclerosis
Patchy atrophic scarring of the kidney as a result of the arteriosclerotic narrowing (hardening due to fibrosis or calcium deposition) of the lumens (cavities or channels) of large branches of the renal artery (abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys).

It occurs in elderly people or in hypertensive people and occasionally causes hypertension.

autonephrectomy
The complete destruction of a kidney by a disease process.
autonephrotoxin
A toxin directed against the kidneys of the organism in which it was produced.
epinephrectomy
The surgical removal of one or more adrenal glands.

The adrenal glands are part of the endocrine system and are located just above the kidneys.

epinephrin
1. A hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla that stimulates hepatic glycogenolysis, causing an elevation in the blood sugar, vasodilation of blood vessels of the skeletal muscles, vasoconstriction of the arterioles of the skin and mucous membranes, relaxation of bronchiolar smooth muscles, and stimulation of heart action.

Used in local anesthetics for its vasoconstrictive action to prolong the anesthesia action, provide hemostasis, and reduce systemic complications.

2. A white to brownish crystalline compound isolated from the adrenal glands of certain mammals or synthesized and used in medicine as a heart stimulant, vasoconstrictor, and bronchial relaxant.
3. Also called adrenalin, a secretion of the adrenal glands (along with norepinephrine) that helps the liver release glucose and limits the release of insulin.

Norepinephrine is both a hormone and a neurotransmitter, a substance that transmits nerve signals.

epinephroma
A lipomatoid tumor of the kidney.

Lipomatoid means, resembling a lipoma (fat cancer), frequently referring to the accumulations of adipose tissue (connective fat tissue) which is not thought to be neoplastic (a tumor or an abnormal growth of tissue).

glomerulonephritis
1. A form of nephritis characterized by inflammation of the renal glomeruli.
2. A variety of nephritis characterised by inflammation of the capillary loops in the glomeruli of the kidney.
3. Any glomerular disease characterized by acute, subacute, or chronic inflammation.

It occurs in acute, subacute and chronic forms and may be secondary to hemolytic streptococcal infection. Evidence also supports possible immune or autoimmune mechanisms.

heminephrectomy
1. Excision of a portion of a kidney.
2. Removal by surgery of part of a kidney
heminephroureterectomy
Removal of a portion of a kidney and ureter by means of surgery.