nephr-, nephro-, nephri-, -nephric
(Greek: nephros; kidney, kidneys)
2. The earliest and simplest kind of excretory organ in the developing vertebrate embryo; however, for humans and other mammals the structure is nonfunctional.
3. In the embryos of higher vertebrates, a vestigial structure consisting of a series of tortuous tubules emptying into the cloaca (terminal part of the gut) by way of the primary nephric duct.
In the human embryo, the archinephros is a very rudimentary and temporary structure, followed by the mesonephros (second of the three excretory organs that develop in a vertebrate embryo, becoming the functioning kidney in fish and amphibians but replaced by the metanephros in higher vertebrates) and still later by the metanephros (third and final excretory organ that develops in a vertebrate embryo).
In birds, reptiles, and mammals, the metanephros replaces the mesonephros as the functional excretory organ and develops into the adult kidney.
2. The destructive changes that occur in the blood vessels of the kidney as a result of severe hypertension (malignant hypertension or a severe form of acute hypertension that results in the abrupt rise in blood pressure).
Prolonged hypertension can result in renal failure.
It occurs in elderly people or in hypertensive people and occasionally causes hypertension.
The adrenal glands are part of the endocrine system and are located just above the kidneys.
Used in local anesthetics for its vasoconstrictive action to prolong the anesthesia action, provide hemostasis, and reduce systemic complications.2. A white to brownish crystalline compound isolated from the adrenal glands of certain mammals or synthesized and used in medicine as a heart stimulant, vasoconstrictor, and bronchial relaxant.
3. Also called adrenalin, a secretion of the adrenal glands (along with norepinephrine) that helps the liver release glucose and limits the release of insulin.
Norepinephrine is both a hormone and a neurotransmitter, a substance that transmits nerve signals.
Lipomatoid means, resembling a lipoma (fat cancer), frequently referring to the accumulations of adipose tissue (connective fat tissue) which is not thought to be neoplastic (a tumor or an abnormal growth of tissue).
2. A variety of nephritis characterised by inflammation of the capillary loops in the glomeruli of the kidney.
3. Any glomerular disease characterized by acute, subacute, or chronic inflammation.
It occurs in acute, subacute and chronic forms and may be secondary to hemolytic streptococcal infection. Evidence also supports possible immune or autoimmune mechanisms.
2. Removal by surgery of part of a kidney