electro-, electr-, electri-

(Greek > Latin: electric, electricity; from amber, resembling amber, generated from amber which when rubbed vigorously [as by friction], produced the effect of static electricity)

Electronics in our lives consists of numerous tools

Equipment which we use everyday relies on electronics to function including calculators, car controls, cameras, washing machines, medical scanners, mobile telephones, radar systems, computers; as well as many other applications or devices which are listed in this unit.

intrabronchial electrocardiography
The recording of an electrocardiogram with an exploring electrode in a bronchus or a tube leading from the windpipe to a lung, which provides for the passage of air.
intracardiac electrocardiography
The recording of electrocardiograms by means of electrodes within the cardiac cavities.
ion-exchange electrolyte cell
Fuel cell which operates on hydrogen and oxygen in the air, similar to the standard hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell with the exception that the liquid electrolyte is replaced by an ion-exchange membrane.

Operation is at atmospheric pressure and room temperature.

ionic bond, electrovalent bond
1. A type of chemical bond in which atoms of different elements join by transferring one or more electrons from one to the other to form an ionizing or polar compound.BR> 2. A chemical bond characteristic of salts and formed by the complete transfer of one or more electrons from one kind of atom to another atom.
3. A type of chemical bonding in which one or more electrons are transferred completely from one atom to another, and so converting the neutral atoms into electrically charged ions.

These ions are approximately spherical and attract one another because of their opposite charge.

ionogram, ionopherogram, electrophoretogram, electropherogram
1. A record of the results of an electrophoresis (objects moving in a fluid when an electric charge is applied); such as, a filter paper on which the components of a mixture are deposited as they migrate under the influence of an electric field.
2. A record produced by an ionosonde (pulsing radar device that measures the height of ionospheric layers), plotting radio frequency against the round-trip time of each pulse.
3. The densitometer tracing generated by analyzing a strip of electrophoretically separated proteins.
ion-selective electrode
1. A chemical transducer that yields a response to variations in the concentration of a given ion in solution.
2. A potentiometric electrode (electromotive force or pressure in an electric circuit measured in volts) that develops a potential in the presence of one ion (or class of ions), but not in the presence of a similar concentration of other ions.
isoelectric electroencephalogram, flat electroencephalogram
1. An electroencephalogram (study of electrical current within the brain) indicating the absence of electric potentials of cerebral origin, indicative under certain specified conditions of cerebral death.
2. An electroencephalogram or the graphic recording of the electric discharges of the cerebral cortex as detected by electrodes on the surface of the scalp in which no recognizable waveforms or deviations from the baseline of electrical activity can be discerned as arising from the brain.
3. A graphic chart on which no tracings are recorded during electroencephalography, indicating a lack of brain wave activity.

Flat readings are indicative of brain death except in cases of profound hypothermia and central nervous system depression.

isoenzyme electrophoresis
An electrophoretic technique (movement of electricity charged particles) used to separate the different forms of a single enzyme produced by cells of different origin.
Kerr electro-optic effect
The inducement of double refraction of light in a transparent substance when a strong electric field is applied in a direction transverse to the beam of light.

In double refraction, the index of refraction (a measure of the amount the ray is bent on entering the material), and hence the wave velocity of light vibrating in the direction of the electric field, is slightly different from the index of refraction of the vibration perpendicular to it.

Optically, the substance behaves like a crystal with its optic axis parallel to the electric field.

This effect was discovered in the latter part of the 19th century by a Scottish physicist, John Kerr.

The same behavior in solids is sometimes called the Pockels effect.

—Compiled from "Kerr electro-optic effect", Encyclopædia Britannica; 2010;
Encyclopædia Britannica Online; June 6, 2010.

lipoprotein electrophoresis
A technique for semiquantitative analysis of plasma lipoproteins by electrophoretic separation followed by staining and quantification of the separated lipoprotein bands.
liquid membrane electrode
An electrode in which the sensing membrane is made up of a hydrophobic ion-exchange neutral carrier (ionophore) dissolved in a viscous, water-insoluble solvent.

The liquid membrane is physically supported by an inert porous matrix; such as, cellulose acetate.

lithotripsy (s) (noun), lithotripsies (pl)
1. A procedure of comminuting or pulverizing a stone in the urinary bladder, or urethra, into small particles that can be passed out by urine: Lithotripsy was formerly done only surgically but it can now be accomplished by various noninvasive methods; such as, using a device that passes shock waves through a water-filled tub in which the patient sits.
2. The crumbling of a urinary calculus or gallstone within the body, followed at once by the washing out the fragments: The stone fragments that result from lithotripsy become small enough to be expelled during the urination process.
magnetic electricity
Electricity induced by a magnetic device.
The passing of an electric current through semimetals; such as, the elements of bismuth and antimony, in the presence of a magnetic field.
megaelectron, MeV
1. One million electron volts.
2. A unit of energy commonly used in nuclear and particle physics, equal to the energy acquired by an electron in falling through a potential of 106 volts.

The references or sources of information for compiling the words and definitions in this unit are listed at this Electronic Bibliography page or specific sources are indicated when they are appropriate.

A cross reference of word units that are related, directly and/or indirectly, with "electricity": galvano-; hodo-; ion-; piezo-; -tron; volt; biomechatronics, info; mechatronics, info.