electro-, electr-, electri-

(Greek > Latin: electric, electricity; from amber, resembling amber, generated from amber which when rubbed vigorously [as by friction], produced the effect of static electricity)

Electronics in our lives consists of numerous tools

Equipment which we use everyday relies on electronics to function including calculators, car controls, cameras, washing machines, medical scanners, mobile telephones, radar systems, computers; as well as many other applications or devices which are listed in this unit.

electrolysis, galvanolysis
1. The decomposition of a substance by passage of an electric current through it; for example, hair follicles may be destroyed with this procedure or the destruction of tumors with an electric current.
2. A process in which the passage of an electric current through an electrolytic solution or other suitable medium produces a chemical reaction; such as, that which occurs in a battery.
3. The process of splitting water into its components, hydrogen, and oxygen; by means of an electrical current.
4. Any process in which the passage of an electric current through a solution or medium produces a chemical reaction.
5. The chemical decomposition of a substance by the reactions that occur to its constituent ions at electrodes when an electric current is passed through the molten substance or, more often, through a solution of the substance.
6. The production of chemical changes by passing electric current from an electrode to an electrolyte, or the reverse of such action.

It is also used to separate isotopes, as in the concentration of deuterium, or heavy water, by the electrolysis of ordinary water.

7. One application of electrolysis is the permanent removal of body hair, including the hair roots, with an electronic instrument.

Although electrolysis is promoted as a permanent process, many people find that hair does grow back, although slowly, after electrolysis.

Electrolysis may be done by a dermatologist, by an electrolysis technician, or by a facial technologist or esthetician.

1. A substance which, in solution, is dissociated into ions and is capable of conducting an electric current; such as, the circulating ions of plasma and other body fluids.
2. In the body, any ion in cells, blood, or other organic material.

Electrolytes help to control fluid levels in the body, maintain normal pH levels, and ensure the correct electric potential between nerve cells which enables the transmission of nerve signals.

Sodium, potassium,chloride, calcium, and phosphate are examples of electrolytes, informally known as lytes.

Electrolyte replacement is needed when a patient has prolonged vomiting or diarrhea, and as a response to strenuous athletic activity.

Commercial electrolyte solutions are available, particularly for sick children (solutions; such as, Pedialygte) and athletes (sports drinks; such as, Gatorade). Electrolyte monitoring is also important in the treatment of anorexia and bulimia

electrolyte acid, battery acid
Dilute sulfuric acid used in storage batteries.
electrolyte and acid/base balance
A nursing outcome from the Nursing Outcomes Classification, NOC, defined as a balance of electrolytes and non-electrolytes in the intracellular and extracellular compartments of the body.
electrolyte balance
The equilibrium or balance between the amounts of electrolytes in the body; such as, calcium, sodium, and potassium; all of which are essential for normal health and functioning.
electrolyte imbalance
Serum concentrations of an electrolyte which are either higher or lower than normal.
electrolyte management
The promotion of electrolyte balance and the prevention of complications resulting from abnormal or undesired serum electrolyte levels.
electrolyte monitoring
A collection and analysis of patient data to regulate electrolyte balances.
electrolyte solution
Any solution containing electrolytes prepared for oral, parenteral, or rectal administration for the replacement or supplementation of ions necessary for homeostasis.

The loss of potassium ion by vomiting, by diarrhea, or the action of certain medications, including diuretics and corticosteroids, may be corrected by administering a solution high in potassium.

electrolyte-activated battery, electrolyte activated battery
1. A reserve battery with an aqueous electrolyte kept in a separate chamber, from which a mechanism forces it into the cells of the battery for activation.
2. A reserve battery in which an aqueous electrolyte is stored in a separate chamber, and a mechanism, which may be operated from a remote location, drives the electrolyte out of the reservoir and into the cells of the battery for activation.
1. Pertaining to electrolysis (where an electric current is passed through an electrolytic solution or other appropriate medium) resulting in electrolytic action or chemical change, especially decomposition, produced in an electrolyte by an electric current.
2. Referring to electrolytes or the process in which the passage of an electric current through a solution or medium produces a chemical reaction.
3. A reference to the destruction of living tissue; especially, of hair roots, by means of an electric current applied with a needle-shaped electrode.
electrolytic analysis
1. A method of analysis based on determining the amount of chemical change that takes place at an electrode.
2. A basic electrochemical technique for the quantitative analysis of conducting solutions containing oxidizable or reducible material.

The measurement is based on the weight of material plated out onto the electrode.

electrolytic capacitor, electrolytic condenser, polarized capacitor
1. A capacitor in which an electrolyte serves as a plate; the other plate is wound aluminum foil.

A thin layer of oxidation on the foil is the dielectric.

2. A capacitor having an electrolyte between two plates.

A thin layer of oxide is deposited on only the positive plate. The oxide acts as the dielectric for the capacitor.

Electrolytic capacitors are polarized and so they must be connected in correct polarity to prevent a breakdown; so, although electrolytic capacitors have comparatively high values of capacitance for their sizes, they also have a high leakage of current and therefore must often have their polarities checked.

electrolytic cell
1. An electrochemical cell in which the reactions are driven by the use of an external potential greater than the thermodynamic or reversible potential of the cell.
2. A cell consisting of electrodes immersed in an electrolyte solution, for carrying out electrolysis.
3. The electrolyte, its container, and the electrodes used in electrolysis.
4. A cell containing an electrolyte through which an externally generated electric current is passed by a system of electrodes in order to produce an electrochemical reaction which produces an electromotive force.

It can be used to store electric energy for use on demand, as in a storage cell; to generate electric energy, as in a dry cell; or to produce a desired electrochemical reaction when electric energy is applied.

electrolytic cleaning
1. An alkaline cleaning during which a current is passed through a cleaning solution and the metal to be cleaned.
2. A process of removing soil, scale, or corrosion products from a metal surface by subjecting it as an electrode to an electric current in an electrolytic bath.

The references or sources of information for compiling the words and definitions in this unit are listed at this Electronic Bibliography page or specific sources are indicated when they are appropriate.

A cross reference of word units that are related, directly and/or indirectly, with "electricity": galvano-; hodo-; ion-; piezo-; -tron; volt; biomechatronics, info; mechatronics, info.