(Latin: a suffix forming nouns from verbs of condition and action; an act or process: resumption, absorption; state or condition, redemption, exhaustion; something resulting from or otherwise related to an act or process, assumption, friction)
This unit is presenting a small fraction of the hundreds of words ending with the suffix of -tion; however, there is a significant number of words which may help everyone have a better understanding and appreciation of the use of this element.
2. The degree to which the apparent position of an astronomical object is distorted by the redirection of its light as it passes through the earth's atmosphere.
3. In ophthalmology, the ability of the eye to change the direction of light in order to focus it on the retina.
4. Etymology: from Late Latin refractionem, refractio, "a breaking up", from Latin refractus, past participle of refringere, "to break up", from re-, "back" + frangere, "to break".
2. The act, process, or an instance of repeating or being repeated.
3. A recitation or recital; especially, of prepared or memorized material.
4. An event or situation which is the same as one that happened previously.
5. Etymology: "an act of saying over again"; from Latin repetitionem, repetitio; from repetitus, past participle of repetere, "to do" or "to say again"; from re-, "again" + petere, "to go toward, to seek, to demand, to attack".
2. The act or process of ordering something to be done: The police officer stipulated a requisition that Carl had to get out of the car and to show his driver's license.
2. A principle that limits the extent of something; for example, "He was willing to accept certain restrictions on his movements."
3. An act of limiting or restricting; as, by regulation or limitation.
2. An attempt to overthrow the existing form of a political organization, the principles of economic production and distribution, and the allocation of social status.
3. A rebellion in which a government is overthrown; usually, by force, and a new group of rulers takes over.
Sometimes the whole social order is overthrown.4. Any large-scale change in society; such as, the Industrial Revolution which was also a cultural revolution.
The development of the microchip caused a revolution in the computer industry.5. A drastic and far-reaching change in the ways of thinking and behaving.
6. Etymology: from the late 14th century, originally referring to celestial bodies, from Old French revolution, from Late Latin revolutionem, revolutio, "a revolving"; from Latin revolutus, revolvere, "to turn, to roll back".
Latin volvere, "to roll" with the prefix re-, "again" produced revolvere, "to roll back, to turn", which when filtered through French, became the English term revolve in the 14th century; originally, meaning "to change" and only taking on the meaning "orbit" in the late 1600's.
Revolution also came into English via French, in the late 14th century, with the original meaning of "the action of a celestial body moving in an orbit".
Over a period of time, revolution came to mean, "turning around" or "change", and by 1600, it acquired the meaning of "overthrow of the established order".
2. In politics, economic or military action taken by a state or alliance of states against another as a coercive measure; usually to enforce a violated law or treaty: The international community imposed sanctions on a country for its illegal political actions.
3. An encouragement given, intentionally or otherwise, to an opinion or practice by a person of influence: The President's apparent sanction encouraged the politician to continue running for Congress.
4. Something which serves to support, authorize, or to confirm an action, procedure, etc.: Sanctions against another country have been lifted.
To impose sanctions upon a person or a nation in order to penalize; such as, something is taken or an order that is given to force a country to obey international laws by limiting or stopping trade with that country, by not allowing economic aid, etc.; usually, expressed as "sanctions against" or "imposing sanctions.
Beijing calls Taiwan deal a "gross intervention" and applies unusual sanctions.
The Chinese government has announced a broad series of measures in retaliation for new U.S. weapons sales to Taiwan, including the unusual step of imposing sanctions on American companies that supply the weapons systems.
2. A substance formed and discharged by a cell, tissue, gland, or organ.
If the material leaves the gland through a duct; such as, saliva, it is called an exocrine secretion; if it enters the blood or lymph; for example insulin, it is called an endocrine secretion.
2. Etymology: from Old French sedicion; from Latin seditionem, seditio, "civil disorder, dissention"; literally, "a going apart, a separation"; from sed-, "apart" + itio "a going"; from ire, "to go".