ion, ion- +
(Greek: ion, "going"; neuter present participle of ienai, "to go"; because an ion moves toward the electrode of an opposite charge)
A record is produced (mass spectrum) of the types of ion present and their relative amounts.
2. A record produced by an ionosonde (pulsing radar device that measures the height of ionospheric layers), plotting radio frequency against the round-trip time of each pulse.
3. The densitometer tracing generated by analyzing a strip of electrophoretically separated proteins.
2. Polymer with covalent bonds between the elements of the chain and ionic bonds between the chains.
3. A polymer; such as, a polystyrene or polyacrylic, having unique physical properties because of the ionic interactions in discrete (separate and unconnected) regions of the material.
4. A polymer containing ion and in dentistry, ionomers are a mixture of glass and an organic acid.
They are clear but vary in the amount of translucency; so, for this reason, their aesthetic potential does not match that of composite resins.
2. A polymer which has ethylene as the major component, but which contains both covalent and ionic bonds.
2. An instrument for measuring the amount and intensity of roentgen rays.
3. An instrument for measuring dosages of ionizing radiation based on the production of ions in the air.
2. A loudspeaker that creates high-frequency audio signals that are used to modulate a radio-frequency signal to a quartz tube.
The modulated signal then acts directly on a sample of ionized air to produce sound.
2. Any molecule; such as, of a drug, that increases the permeability of cell membranes to a specific ion.
3. Any of a group of organic compounds that facilitate the transport of ions across a cell membrane.
4. A chemical compound capable of forming a complex with an ion and transporting it through a biological membrane.
5. A lipid-soluble substance capable of transporting specific ions through cellular membranes.
6. A chemical material that has a high affinity for ions.
Ionophores are used in ion-selective electrode membranes.
2. A pulsed radar device used to measure the height of ionospheric layers.
3. A radar system for determining the vertical height at which the ionosphere reflects signals back to earth at various frequencies.
A pulsed vertical beam is swept periodically through a frequency range from 0.5 to 20 megahertz, and the variation of echo return time with frequency is photographically recorded.
2. A region of the earth's atmosphere where ionization caused by incoming solar radiation affects the transmission of radio waves.
It extends from a height of 70 kilometers (43 miles) to 400 kilometers (250 miles) above the surface.3. A section in the earth's atmosphere, beginning at an altitude of 70-80 kilometers and extending to an indefinite height, in which free electrons and ions produced by solar radiation are abundant and affect certain radio waves that propagate through this region.
Ionosphere and Magnetosphere
The ionosphere and the magnetosphere consist of regions of the earth’s atmosphere in which the number of electrically charged particles—ions and electrons—are large enough to affect the propagation of radio waves.
The charged particles are created by the action of extraterrestrial radiation (mainly from the sun) on neutral atoms and molecules of air.
The ionosphere begins at a height of about 50 kilometers (30 miles) above the surface, but it is most distinct and important above 80 kilometers (50 miles).
In the upper regions of the ionosphere, beginning several hundred kilometers above earth’s surface and extending tens of thousands of kilometers into space, is the magnetosphere, a region where the behavior of charged particles is strongly affected by the magnetic fields of the earth and the sun.
Much of the early research on the ionosphere was carried out by radio engineers and was stimulated by the need to define the factors influencing long-range radio communication.
It is in the magnetosphere that the spectacular displays of the aurora borealis and aurora australis take place.
The magnetosphere also contains the Van Allen radiation belts, where highly energized protons and electrons travel back and forth between the poles of earth’s magnetic field.
The name ionosphere was introduced first in the 1920's and was formally defined in 1950 by a committee of the Institute of Radio Engineers as "the part of the earth's upper atmosphere where ions and electrons are present in quantities sufficient to affect the propagation of radio waves."
Subsequent research has focused on understanding the ionosphere as the environment for earth-orbiting satellites and, in the military arena, for ballistic missile flight.
Scientific knowledge of the ionosphere has grown tremendously, fueled by a steady stream of data from spacecraft-borne instruments and enhanced by measurements of relevant atomic and molecular processes in the laboratory.
2. A disturbance that affects ionospheric scatter communications resulting from the penetration of meteors through the D region of the ionospheric layer.