ion, ion- +
(Greek: ion, "going"; neuter present participle of ienai, "to go"; because an ion moves toward the electrode of an opposite charge)
2. The proportion of potential ionization that has taken place for an ionizable material in a solution or reaction mixture.
2. The energy required o remove completely the weakest bound electron from its ground state in an atom or molecule so that the resulting ion is also in its ground state.
3. Amount of energy required to remove an electron from an isolated atom or molecule.
There is an ionization potential for each successive electron removed, though that associated with removing the first (most loosely held) electron is most commonly used.
The ionization potential of an element is a measure of its ability to enter into chemical reactions requiring ion formation or donation of electrons and is related to the nature of the chemical bonding in the compounds formed by elements.
2. A transition region that separates interstellar gas in which a given atomic species, usually hydrogen, is mostly ionized from interstellar gas in which it is essentially neutral.
"Bragg scattering" and "Bragg angles" are named after, Sir William Henry Bragg (1862–1942), and his son, Sir William Lawrence Bragg (1890–1971); English physicists and Nobel prize winners in 1915.
2. Referring to a gas tube, the time interval between the initiation of conditions for and the establishment of conduction at some stated value of tube voltage drop.
2. An atom with an excess or deficiency of electrons, so that it has a net charge.
2. A gas, with some atoms or molecules that have undergone ionization.
3. A gas in which a certain portion of the particles are ionized.
2. Layers of increased ionization within the ionosphere produced by cosmic radiation; responsible for absorption and reflection of radio waves and important in connection with communications and tracking of satellites and other space vehicles.
In air the value is approximately 33.73 electron volts.
2. Any occurrence in which an ion or group of ions is produced; for example, by passage of charged particles through matter or the passage of alpha or beta particles or gamma rays through a gas.
The risk of cell death or injury from radiation depends on the type of tissue cells, the stage of cell division at the time of exposure, the intensity and time span of exposure, and the type of radiation administered.
It includes non-particulate radiation; such as. X-rays, and radiation produced by energetic charged particles; such as, alpha and beta rays, and by neutrons, as from a nuclear reaction.2. Particulate or electromagnetic radiation that produces ionization in a medium through which it passes.
3. Any radiation; such as, a stream of alpha particles or x-rays, that produces ionization as it passes through a medium.
4. Particles or photons that have sufficient energy to produce ionization directly in their passage through a substance.
5. Particles that are capable of nuclear interactions in which sufficient energy is released to produce ionization.
6. Photons of high-energy electromagnetic radiation and particle forms of radiation that have sufficient energy to produce ions by removing electrons from atoms or molecules.