grapho-, graph-, -graph, -graphy, -grapher, -graphia
(Greek: to scratch; to write, to record, to draw, to describe; that which is written or described)
As indicated at the bottom of this page, there is a significantly large number of graphic word-entry groups in this unit. Such an extensive listing is provided to show how important the grapho- element is to the English language.
2. An umbrella term for the entire electrodiagnostic study performed in the EMG laboratory, including not only the needle electrode examination, but also the nerve conduction studies.
3. A diagnostic procedure in which metal probes are attached to or inserted into the skin in order to detect the electrical activity of contracting muscles.
Such activities are altered in recognizable ways by diseases that affect either muscles or nerves which supply the muscles.4. The preparation, study of, and interpretation of electromyograms.
5. The recording of electrical activities associated with muscular functions, often used in the clinical diagnosis of muscular disorders.
A single electrical spike potential is generated when a muscle fiber contracts while the magnitude of the spike potentials is roughly proportional to the amount of muscular tension.
Surface detecting electrodes (for many muscle fibers) or needle electrodes (for one or a few fibers) provide a signal that is amplified and displayed on a cathode-ray tube.
Needle electrodes are inserted into any skeletal muscle being studied, electric current is applied to the electrodes, and neuromuscular functions are observed and recorded by means of instruments; such as, a cathode-ray oscilloscope and an appropriate recording device.
The procedure is helpful in the study of neuromuscular conduction, the extent of nerve lesions, and reflex responses.
2. An instrument related to the electron microscope, in which a beam of electrons strikes the sample, showing crystal pattern and other physical attributes on the resulting diffraction pattern: An electron diffractograph is used for chemical analysis, atomic structure determination, etc.
2. A photograph or other reproduction of an image formed by the action of an electron beam by an electron microscope.
The electron beam carries the images through an array of lenses and an enlarged electron image is used to stimulate a fluorescent screen that is photographed by a camera system.
2. The practice of scanning a beam of electrons in a patterned fashion across a surface covered with a film called the resist, exposing the resist, and of selectively removing either exposed or non-exposed regions of the resist called, "developing".
3. Lithography in which the radiation-sensitive film or resist is placed in the vacuum chamber of a scanning-beam electron microscope and exposed by an electron beam under digital computer control.
After exposure, the film is removed from the vacuum chamber for conventional development and other production processes.
2. The recording and study of the electrical properties of skeletal muscles by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Useful in kinesiology and the study of neuromuscular function, extent of nerve lesion, and reflex response.3. An electrodiagnostic test that assists in detecting and locating peripheral nerve injury or disease.
The study is usually done in conjunction with electromyography.
2. A method of measuring changes in a peripheral nerve by combining electromyography of a muscle with electrical stimulation of the nerve trunk carrying fibers to and from the muscle.
3. The recording of electrical activities of muscles induced by the electric stimulation of nerves.
2. Microradiography of very thin specimens in which the emission of electrons from an irradiated object, either the specimen or a lead screen behind it, is used to produce a photographic image of the specimen, which is then enlarged.
Microradiography is a technique for the study of surfaces of solids by monochromatic-radiation (such as X-ray) contrast effects shown by means of projection or enlargement of a contact radiograph.
2. Radiography in which the image is detached by direct image converter tubes or by the use of television pickup or electronic scanning, and the resultant signals are amplified and presented for viewing on a kinescope or a recorded television program.