-ation, -ization (-iz[e] + -ation); -isation (British spelling variation)

(Greek > Latin: a suffix; action, act, process, state, or condition; or result of doing something)

Although there are over 1,450 word entries ending with -ation or -ization listed in this unit, there are certainly many more which exist in the English language. At any rate, this unit provides a significant number of -ation and -ization examples for you to see.

vindication (s) (noun), vindications (pl)
1. The act of defending against being blamed for or suspicion of doing something wrong: The vindication of the doctor for his unusual medical treatment was supported by the patient's miraculous recovery.
2. An action or circumstance which is proven to be reasonable or justified: Karl's decision to complete his computer programming at the university was a vindication that prepared him for his successful technical career.
vinification (s) (noun), vinifications (pl)
The conversion of grape juice, or other vegetable extract, into wine by fermentation.
1. A crime less serious than a felony; a misdemeanor.
2. An act that disregards an agreement or a right: "He claimed a violation of his rights under the Fifth Amendment."
3. An entry to another's property without right or permission; trespass.
4. A disrespectful act; for example, irreverence.
5. The crime of forcing a woman to submit to sexual intercourse against her will; rape.
1. The action of seeing, an instance of visiting, or an instance of being visited or seen.
2. Etymology: "a visit by an ecclesiastical representative to examine the condition of a parish, abbey, etc.", from Latin visitationem; from Old French visiter, from Latin visitare, "to go to see, come to inspect"; from visere "to behold, to visit" (a person or place), from the stem of videre, "to see, to notice, to observe".
1. A behavioral technique for improving performance, in which the individual is encouraged to create a mental picture of the successful execution of the task.
2. The process of viewing, or of achieving a complete visual representation of, an object as in roentgenography.
3. Making a mental image that is similar to an actual visual perception.
4. A self-suggestive technique used in psychology which involves focusing on positive mental images in order to achieve a particular goal or purpose.
5. Any presentation of data using visual images as in computer programming.
1. The process of making more lively or vigorous; the invigoration of someone or something.
2. Having given life to or an arousal to an activity.
3. Endowment with life and animation.
1. The feeding of vitamins to make an individual vigorous or to purportedly prevent or cure a disease.
2. A process of taking or giving vitamins.
vitiation (s) (noun), vitiations (pl)
1. Injury, contamination, impairment of use or efficiency: The vitiation of his left arm made it difficult for Hector to use his motorcycle.
2. A change in a process that hampers a utility or reduces efficiency: Turning on only one bank of lights instead of two in the storeroom was a vitiation which made it difficult for Tom and the other workers to complete their repairs.
3. A weakening or the prevention of doing something: Breaking her leg was a vitiation of Jean's ability to run her Bed & Breakfast business efficiently.
1. The process of converting materials into glass or a glass-like amorphous solid which does not have any crystalline structure.
2. In pottery, the point at which a pot loses its porosity during a firing.
3. The progressive fusion of a material during the firing process; as it proceeds, glassy bonding increases and the porosity of the fired product decreases.
4. A forming of a supercooled liquid; such as, glass.
5. The act or process of vitrifying; a state of being vitrified.

When the starting material is solid, vitrification usually involves heating the substances to very high temperatures. Many ceramics are produced in such a manner.

Vitrification also occurs naturally when lightning strikes sand, where the extreme and immediate heat can create hollow, branching rootlike structures of glass, called fulgurites (natural hollow carrot-shaped glass tubes formed in quartzose sand or soil by lightning strikes).

1. The act, process, or result of vitriolating.
2. The act or process of converting into sulphuric acid or into vitriol.
vituperation (s) (noun), vituperations (pl)
Bitter and insulting language including angry criticism: The supervisor used vituperations to let Marsha know that she had really made some serious blunders in her assignment.

Some voters are getting fed up with all of the vituperations that are being thrown back and forth during the campaign.

This vituperate image provides an example of what vituperation means.

The abuse of words or a censure in words.
© ALL rights are reserved.

Go to this Word A Day Revisited Index
so you can see more of Mickey Bach's cartoons.

vivication (s) (noun), vivications (pl)
The production of powerful feelings or strong, clear images in the mind; such as, a vivid description.
vivification (s) (noun), vivications (pl)
1. Having the quality of being active, spirited, or alive and vigorous.
2. The act of being restored to life; revival.
3. Trimming of the surface layer of a wound to aid the union of tissues.
4. Transformation of protein through assimilation into the living matter of cellular organisms.
A reproductive process in which the conceptus is sustained and nourished within the body of the maternal animal.