super-, supra-, sur-

(Latin: above, over; more than, excessive)

Sur- is a variation of super- developed through the French and shouldn't be confused with another assimilated sur- form that comes from sub- and means: "under, below, beneath".

In some words, super- is amplified to mean: "on top of; higher in rank or position than; superior to; greater in quality, amount, or degree than others of its kind".

supercilium (s), supercillia (pl)
1. The eyebrow, or the region of the eyebrows.
2. An individual hair of the eyebrow.
3. The arch of hair above each eye; eyebrow, brow.
supercluster (s) (noun), superclusters (pl)
An association of clusters of galaxies.

Superclusters are large assemblages of smaller galaxy groups and clusters, and are among the largest structures of the cosmos.

The existence of superclusters indicates that the galaxies in our Universe are not uniformly distributed; most of them are grouped together in groups and clusters, with groups containing up to fifty galaxies and clusters up to several thousand.

Those groups and clusters and additional isolated galaxies in turn form even larger structures called "superclusters".

supercomputer (s) (noun), supercomputers (pl)
A term for any extremely powerful, large-capacity computer, that is capable of processing huge amounts of data in an extremely short time.
superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES)
A technology in which the superconducting characteristics of low-temperature materials produce intense magnetic fields to store energy; proposed as a storage option in photovoltaics to smooth out fluctuations in power generation.
Superconducting Super Collider (SSC)
A massive ring particle accelerator that was planned to be built by the U.S. government near Waxahachie, Texas.

Due to concern over the high cost of the project, it was eventually canceled by Congress in 1993 after 22.5 kilometers (14 miles) of its tunnel had already been excavated and $2 billion was spent (wasted).

A phenomenon shown by certain metals, alloys, and other compounds of having negligible resistance to the flow of electric current at temperatures approaching absolute zero.

Certain materials are now known to exhibit superconductivity at temperatures well above absolute zero.

1. Highly critical or judgmental.
2. Of, pertaining to, or designating a fluid at a temperature and pressure greater than its critical temperature and pressure.

Water normally boils as temperature rises, but if both pressure and temperature push up beyond a certain critical point, the gas and liquid phases merge into a supercritical fluid that is denser than steam but lighter than liquid water

Supercritical water is especially effective at leaching metals and other nutrients out of rock. Some, such as sulphur, provide energy for the organisms that live around vents, which have no light to start a food chain; also iron is essential for the growth of plankton.

—Based on information from
"Deep in the ocean something stirred"; by Catherine Brahic;
New Scientist; August 9, 2008; page 14.
superego (s) (noun), superegos (pl)
1. In Freudian theory, the division of the unconscious that is formed through the internalization of moral standards of parents and society, and that censors and restrains one's self-importance.
2. In psychoanalytic theory, the part of mind that internalizes parental and cultural values, restrictions, and inhibitions, and that is responsible for self-imposed standards of behavior and for restraining the part of a person's mind that acts as a self-critical conscience, reflecting social qualities learned from parents, teachers, religious leaders, etc. from conducting oneself in unacceptable ways: A superego results from incorporating the values and wishes of the people from one's past with his or her own levels of thinking.
1. Of superior eminence, rank, or dignity.
2. Distinguished, conspicuous, or worthy of note above others.
Eminent in a superior degree; surpassing others in excellence; such as, a supereminent divine.
1. Characterized by superior eminence, rank, or dignity.
2. A reference to being distinguished, conspicuous, or worthy of note above others.
supererogate (verb), supererogates; supererogated; supererogating
To perform or to produce more than is required, ordered, or expected: When Helena's colleague couldn't complete the work which was assigned to him, she supererogated her assignment in order to help Roy get his work done, too.
To do more than is necessary.
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supererogation (s) (noun), supererogations (pl)
1. The performance of work above and beyond what is required or expected: Jim spent a supererogation of over-time work for the project he was supposed to complete in a shorter period.
2. An excess or overabundance, a profusion, or a surplus: If Jeff keeps saying that supererogation so often, there are those who believe that he should have a gag placed in his mouth.

James contributed some of his supererogation to the food bank to help the poor families in town. 3. Etymology: from Latin super, "above, over" + erogare, "pay out"; from ex-, "out" + rogare, "to ask, to request".

supererogatory (adjective), more supererogatory, most supererogatory
Referring to something that is performed to an extent beyond what is required or expected: Since Jason was going on vacation, he did some supererogatory work so the financial statements would reach the customers at the usual time.
A reference to doing more than what is normally expected.
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superficial (adjective), more superficial, most superficial
1. Pertaining to something on or near the surface: Monroe had a superficial wound when he bumped into the frame of a door last night.

Fortunately Henry only had a superficial wound during the car accident.

2. Concerned with or comprehending only what is apparent or obvious; shallow: Jane told Sam that she was not interested in having a superficial relationship.
3. Apparent rather than actual or substantial: Despite the superficial resemblance, the two paintings at the exhibition were by two different artists.

Shirley had a superficial resemblance to her sister.

4. Trivial; insignificant: The editor made only a few superficial changes in the text of the reporter's article.
5. Etymology: "of or relating to a surface" from Latin superficialis, "of or pertaining to the surface"; from superficies, "surface"; from super, "above, over" + facies, "form, face"; meaning "not deep" or "thorough" as to perceptions, thoughts, etc.
Resembling something that is only on the surface or concerned only with what obvious, hasty, or cursosry.
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Related "above, over, beyond the normal, excessive" word units: epi-; hyper-; ultra-, ult-.

Inter-related cross references, directly or indirectly, involving word units meaning "more, plentiful, fullness, excessive, over flowing": copi-; exuber-; hyper-; multi-; opulen-; ple-; pleio-; plethor-; poly-; total-; ultra-; undu-.