sphero-, spher-, -sphere-
(Greek: ball, round, around; globe, global; body of globular form; by extension, circular zone, circular area)
2. Slang for the rarefied organizational layers beginning just above the rank-and-file: "Decisions that result from the adminisphere are usually not practical or they are not connected to the situation that really needs to solve a problem or problems."
2. The entire mass of gas surrounding the Earth: The aerosphere surrounding the planet Earth is comprised of a variety of gases.
Another allobiosphere has been discovered at the bottom of the seas where hot springs come up from that part of the Earth that is deep below the surface or on the seafloor where hot springs have animals that are separate from green plants but that depend on bacteria that utilize the energy of chemicals from the hot springs.
Ocean depths are the most extensive and permanent example of the allobiosphere where in great areas there is no light and so there is no active plant life; however, explorers of the depths of the oceans have discovered various animals; such as, worms, prawn-like creatures, and many types of fish that live in these locations.
The ecologist, G. Evelyn Hutchinson, coined the term allobiosphere for these environments, where plant life and its photosynthesis are replaced by environmental extremes of darkness, heat, or cold, but where life continues, life that depends for nourishment from materials that come from other places.
"Aspheric eyeglass lenses typically do not provide better vision than standard best form lenses, but rather allow a thinner, flatter lens to be made without reducing the optical performance."
"As a joke, Lance described his cat as aspherical; that is, not quite round but very plump."
2. A portion of the upper mantle just below the lithosphere which is involved in plate movements and isostatic adjustments: "In spite of asthenosphere's heat, pressures keep it plastic, and it has a relatively low density."
"Seismic waves pass relatively slowly through the asthenosphere, compared to the overlying lithospheric mantle; therefore, it has been called the low-velocity zone and this was the observation that originally alerted seismologists to it's presence and gave some information about its physical properties, as the speed of seismic waves decreases with decreasing rigidity."
"The asthenosphere lies beneath the lithosphere or the upper part of the earth's mantle, extending from a depth of about 75 km (46.5 mi) to about 200 km (124 mi) and consists of partially molten rock and which makes seismic waves passing through this layer significantly slower. "
"Isostatic adjustments (the depression or uplift of continents by buoyancy) take place in the asthenosphere, and the magma is believed to be generated there."3. Etymology: asthenosphere comes from Greek asthenēs, "weak"; from Greek astheneia, "weakness"; from a-, "without" + sthenos, "strength" + -o-, "a connective vowel" + -sphere, "around, zone".
Lying above the lithosphere is
- The liquid hydrosphere, comprising 71% of the earth's surface.
- The still lighter gaseous atmosphere, both of which were ultimately derived from the accretion of comets.
"Sometimes referred to as the weak sphere, the asthenosphere is characterized by being weaker and more elastic than the surrounding mantle."
"Its lack of shear strength results from the high temperature of the rocks approaching the melting point. Since seismic waves travel more slowly in the asthenosphere; it is also referred to as the low velocity zone."
"The asthenosphere's elastic behavior and low viscosity allow the overlying plates to move laterally and also allow the overlying crust and mantle to move vertically in response to gravity to achieve isostatic equilibrium or the theoretical balance in buoyancy of all parts of the earth's crust, as though they were floating on a denser layer beneath them."
"The asthenosphere is the mantle (layer of the earth between the crust and the core) is believed to make up eighty-four percent of the earth by volume and sixty-seven percent by mass."
"The asthenosphere is about 1,802 miles, or 2,900 kilometers, thick and consists of silica, plus iron-rich, magnesium-rich, and other metal-rich minerals."
"The hot plastic asthenosphere, part upper mantle and lower crust, separates the more brittle crust-mantle lithosphere above from the mesosphere below."
"The asthenosphere is thought to be responsible for the movement of the lithospheric plates (crustal plates) that slowly carry the continents around the planet, and the asthenosphere is about 186 miles, or 300 kilometers, thick."
"The more solid mesosphere, located below the asthenosphere, includes part of the upper and all of the lower mantle."
"Scientists theorize that convection in the upper mantle-lower crust, or asthenosphere, slowly carries the lithospheric plates around the planet; while another theory states that convection at a depth of about 375 to 435 miles, or 603 to 700 kilometers, in the part of the mantle (mesosphere) is transferred to the asthenosphere and moves the plates."
2. Etymology: from Greek astheneia, "weakness"; which consists of a-, "without" + sthenos, "strength" + -spheric, "being around" or "a zone".
The atmosphere consists of four distinct layers whose boundaries are not precise:
- The "troposphere" (extending from sea level to about 5-10 miles [10 to 20 km] above the earth.
- The "stratosphere" (up to about 30 miles [50 km]).
- The "mesosphere" (up to about 60 miles [96 km]).
- The "thermosphere" (up to about 300 miles or more [480 km]).
The upper region of the troposphere is often regarded as a separate region known as the "exosphere".2. The gas bound gravitationally to a planet or the pressure of the air on the Earth at mean sea level approximately 14.7 pounds per square inch or 760 millimeters high at 0 degrees Celsius under standard gravity: Through the powerful telescope, the astronomers were able to study the atmosphere of the distant planets.
Although some details about the atmospheres of other planets and satellites are known, only the Earth's atmosphere has been well studied, the science of which is called "meteorology".3. The outer layers of a star: The atmosphere surrounding the star appears to cause the twinkle effect which romantic couples dream about.
4. A supposed outer envelope of effective influences surrounding various bodies: The atmosphere of the capital city was one of individuals and corporations attempting to influence politicians.
5. Prevailing psychological climate; a pervading tone or mood; a characteristic mental or moral environment; a fascinating or beguiling association or effect: The atmosphere in the office appeared to be edgy as if there were major staff changes anticipated, but no one knew when that would happen.
6. Applied to the background sounds that evoke a particular mood, impression, setting, etc., in a broadcast program, etc.: The atmosphere created by the music was dark and mysterious.
7. The air in any particular place, especially as affected in its condition by heat, cold, purifying or contaminating influences, etc.: The old wood stove was not well maintained and smoked, creating a smoky atmosphere in the cabin.
8. The predominant tone or mood of a work of art, or the pervading quality, effect, or mood, especially as associated with a particular place: Henry lived in a dark old house with a depressing atmosphere.
9. A distinctively exotic or romantic quality or effect: Willy and Gertrude went to an Italian restaurant where there was lots of atmosphere.
2. Dependent on, caused by, or resulting from the collection of gases surrounding the surface of the Earth or other celestial bodies: The moon glimmered through the atmospheric mist caused by the wispy clouds in the sky.
3. Descriptive of a distinctive quality or effect in a location: The atmospheric music in the background of the restaurant encouraged patrons to relax and to enjoy their meals.
2. The reduction of the energy of microwaves by the presence of moisture in the gases surrounding the Earth: The static in the skies at night in the local area appeared to cause the atmospheric absorption of the microwaves, which were interfering with the radar system.
The most common example of optical scintillation is the "twinkling" of stars observed through the atmosphere because it arises as a result of random angular scattering produced by refractive index fluctuations.
Fluctuations in the amplitude of different frequency components in the spectrum of an object can give rise to apparent changes in its color (chromatic scintillation). An example is the random red and blue twinkling of bright stars near the horizon.
Scintillation statistics have been used to study turbulence in regions ranging from the planetary boundary layer to the ionosphere, as well as interplanetary and interstellar space and it is important for astronomical imaging, optical and radio communications, laser and acoustical propagation, active and passive remote sensing, and the performance of the Global Positioning System.