spec-, spic-, spect-, spectat-, spectro- -spectr, -spectful, -spection, -spective

(Latin: to see, seeing; to look at, looking at; sight, to appear, appearing; to behold, to examine, examining)

speciate, speciates; speciated; speciating (verbs)
To form or to develop into new biological groups: "The birds that had a common ancestry speciated over many years and evolved into new species that were suited or adapted to their environments."
speciation (s), speciations (pl) (nouns)
1. The evolutionary process whereby new species are developed: "With speciation, there is a separation of a population into genetically isolated segments that become recognized as new biological species populations."
2. The emergence of a new biological group in the course of, and as a consequence of, evolution: "Speciation is the formation of a new species. Geographic isolation can lead to genetic isolation within a few generations, as is thought to have occurred with the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) and the polar bear (Ursus maritimus)."

"Over a period of time, the shuffling and reshuffling of the same genes result in individuals with distinct physical characteristics, vastly different from the individuals from whom they became separated; for example, the polar bear developed a unique coloration and diet as distinct from that of its grizzly cousin."

—Compiled from excerpts located in
Encyclopedia of Science and Technology; General Editor, James Trefil;
Routledge; New York; 2001; page 457.
speciational (adjective)
A reference to the process of biological formation of biological groups: "Biologist have been studying the speciational development of various species of plant and animals for many years."
specie (s) (noun), species (pl)
A distinct kind or sort; specifically, a group of biological vegetation or creatures each of which has common characteristics: The various natural groups of animals or plants are considered to be the species for each.

Birds are not a species; however, robins, bluejays, sparrows, etc. are.

Generally speaking, all members of a species look and behave similarly in all important respects and can breed among themselves.

Normally, breeding between members of different species does not occur in nature.

Groups of organisms, minerals, or other entities are recognized as being distinct species from each other.

According to some biologists, there are approximately 8,000 species of ants.

It has been estimated that between five and thirty million different species of organisms live on the Earth.

Such groups as the vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds) and flowering plants have relatively fewer species, numbering only in the hundreds of thousands; while insects account for the greatest number of all of the species which exist.

—Compiled from information provided by
The New York Public Library Science Desk Reference,
Patricia Barnes-Svarney, Editorial Director;
A Stonesong Press Book, Inc.; 1995; page 95.
A breed or kind of plants or animals.
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specific (adjective), more specific, most specific
1. Relating to something that is clearly and exactly presented or stated: The teacher gave her students a specific topic to write about and not to come up with another subject that they might prefer.
2. Pertaining to particular people or situations: The counselor was presenting an educational plan which was specific for students who were planning to go to a university, or college, after they have graduated from high school.
Clearly and in exact terms; not vague.
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specimen (s), specimens (pl) (nouns)
1. Something that may be looked at; especially, a plant or an animal: "The specimen Harvey held up was an example of what he was trying to explain."
2. A sample of something that is used for medical-diagnostic analysis: "The doctor asked Karl for a specimen or sample of bodily fluid; specifically, urine which would be used for analysis or diagnosis."
specious (adjective), more specious, most specious
1. A reference to something that is supposedly right or plausible in appearance; however, it is usually neither correct nor is it the real thing: Tracie made an attempt to give herself a specious argument to justify eating much more ice cream than is normal.

Adam justified his bad behavior with several specious excuses.

2. Etymology: from Latin speciosus, "appearance" and from specere, "to look at."
Something that is supposed to be right, but it isn't.
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1. Something which can be seen or viewed; especially, something of a remarkable, elaborate, or impressive nature.
2. A public performance or display; especially, something on a large or lavish scale.
3. A regrettable public display, as of some kind of bad behavior: "The guy drank so much that he made a spectacle of himself."
1. An optical instrument consisting of a pair of lenses (eyeglasses) for correcting defective vision and a frame which holds those lenses.
2. Lenses set in a frame which holds them in front of the eyes and that are used to correct errors of refraction or to protect the eyes.

The parts of the spectacles are the lenses; the bridge between the lenses, resting on the nose; and the rims or frames, encircling the lenses; plus the sides or temples that pass on either side of the head to the ears.

spectacular (s), spectaculars (pl)
1. A large and impressive public event or a large and impressive public event or performance.
2. A single dramatic production of unusual length or lavishness (expense).
3. Being very impressive or dramatic; such as, a grand and impressive show or performance.

Cross references of word families that are related directly, or indirectly, to: "appear, visible, visual, manifest, show, see, reveal, look": blep-; delo-; demonstra-; opt-; -orama; pare-; phanero-; phant-; pheno-; scopo-; vela-, veal-; video-, visuo-.