-ology, -logy, -ologist, -logist

(Greek: a suffix meaning: to talk, to speak; a branch of knowledge; any science or academic field that ends in -ology which is a variant of -logy; a person who speaks in a certain manner; someone who deals with certain topics or subjects)

The word -ology is a back-formation from the names of certain disciplines. The -logy element basically means "the study of ____". Such words are formed from Greek or Latin roots with the terminal -logy derived from the Greek suffix -λογια (-logia), speaking, from λεγειν (legein), "to speak".

The suffix -ology is considered to be misleading sometimes as when the "o" is actually part of the word stem that receives the -logy ending; such as, bio + logy.

Through the years -ology and -logy have come to mean, "study of" or "science of" and either of these suffixes often utilize the form of -ologist, "one who (whatever the preceding element refers to)".

The examples shown in this unit represent just a small fraction of the many words that exist in various dictionaries.

apologist (s) (noun), apologists (pl)
A person who argues in defense or justification of something; such as, a doctrine, a policy, or an institution: "A few apologists defended their political positions as being justified for these bad economic times."

When a person is an apologist, he or she is trying to justify a belief or some action and would do it again.

apology (s) (noun), apologies (pl)
1. An acknowledgment expressing regret or asking for a pardon for a fault or an offense.
2. A formal justification or defense.
3. An expression of regret at having caused trouble or embarrassment for someone.
4. Etymology: "defense, justification", from Late Latin apologia, from Greek apologia, "a speech in defense", from apologeisthai, "to speak in one's defense", from apologos, "an account, a story"; from apo-, "from, off" + logos, "speech".
arachnidologist (s) (noun), arachnidologists (pl)
Someone who specializes in the study of spiders.
arachnidology (s) (noun), arachnidologies (pl)
The study of spiders by entomologists and arachnidologists.
arachnologist (s) (noun), arachnologists (pl)
A student of, or someone who is proficient in learning about spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks.
arachnologists (noun) (lexicomedy)
A web of arachnologists.
arachnology (s) (noun), arachnologies (pl)
A department of zoology relating to spiders or the Arachnida generally.
arborvirologist (s) (noun), arborvirologists (pl)
A specialist in any one of more than 300 viruses transmitted by the saliva of insects: "An arborvirologist studies a large group of viruses transmitted by arthropods; such as, mosquitoes and ticks, that include the causative agents of encephalitis, yellow fever, and dengue."
arborvirology (s) (noun), arborvirologies (pl)
A branch of virology that deals with the branch of microbiology that deals with the study of viruses (submicroscopic infectious organisms) and viral diseases (microorganism that causes many common human infections).
archaeogeology (s), (noun), archaeogeologies (pl)
The study of ancient geological conditions or situations.
archaeological chronology, archeological chronology (s); archaeological chronologies, archeological chronologies (pl)
Establishment of the temporal sequences of human cultures by the application of a variety of dating methods to cultural remains.
archaeological geology, archeological geology (s) (noun); archaeological geologies, archeological geologies (pl)
The use of geological techniques and methods to archaeological work: "Archeological geology is different from geoarchaeology in that the it is a subfield of archaeology focusing on the physical context of deposits."
archaeology, archeology (s) (noun); archaeologies, archeologies (pl)
The scientific study and reconstruction of the human past through the systematic recovery of the physical remains of man's life and cultures.

Artifacts, structures, settlements, materials, and features of prehistoric or ancient peoples are surveyed and/or excavated to uncover history in times before written records.

Archaeology also supplements the study of recorded history. From the end of the 18th century onwards, archaeology has come to mean the branch of learning which studies the material remains of mankind's past. Its scope is, therefore, enormous, ranging from the first stone tools made and fashioned by man over three million years ago in Africa, to the garbage thrown into our trash cans and taken to city dumps and incinerators yesterday.

The objectives of archaeology are to construct cultural history by ordering and describing the events of the past, study cultural processes to explain the meaning of those events and what underlies and conditions human behavior, and reconstruct past lifeways.

Among the specialties in the field are: archaeobiology, archaeobotany, archaeozoology, and social archaeology. Modern archaeology, which is often considered a subdiscipline of anthropology, has become increasingly scientific and relies on a wide variety of experts; such as, biologists, geologists, physicists, sociologists, anthropologists, and historians.

The methods appropriate to different periods vary, leading to specialized branches of the subject, e.g. classical, medieval, industrial, etc. archaeology.

—Compilation of information gleaned from the
Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.; William Benton, Publisher: Chicago;
1968, Vol. I, Pages 224-281.
archaeozoologist, archeozoologist (s); archaeozoologists, archeozoologists (pl)
Those who study animal bones in order to calculate the minimum numbers of individuals belonging to each animal species found; their size, age, gender, stature, dentition, and whether the bones have any marks from implements implying butchering and eating: "Archaeozoologists analyze the animal remains from different parts of a site in order to understand some of the internal organizations of the settlements, while comparisons between sites within a region may show how different or similar the areas were."
archaeozoology, archeozoology (s) (noun); archaeozoologies, archeozoologies (pl)
The study of animal remains, especially bones, from archaeological contexts: "Archaeozoology involves the identification and analysis of animal species as an aid to reconstructing human diets, determining the impact of animals on past economies, and in understanding the environment at the time the remains were deposited."
Cross references of word families related directly, or indirectly, to: "talk, speak, speech; words, language; tongue, etc.": cit-; clam-; dic-; fa-; -farious; glosso-; glotto-; lalo-; linguo-; locu-; logo-; loqu-; mythico-; ora-; -phasia; -phemia; phon-; phras-; Quotes: Language,Part 1; Quotes: Language, Part 2; Quotes: Language, Part 3; serm-; tongue; voc-.