-ology, -logy, -ologist, -logist
(Greek: a suffix meaning: to talk, to speak; a branch of knowledge; any science or academic field that ends in -ology which is a variant of -logy; a person who speaks in a certain manner; someone who deals with certain topics or subjects)
The word -ology is a back-formation from the names of certain disciplines. The -logy element basically means "the study of ____". Such words are formed from Greek or Latin roots with the terminal -logy derived from the Greek suffix -λογια (-logia), speaking, from λεγειν (legein), "to speak".
The suffix -ology is considered to be misleading sometimes as when the "o" is actually part of the word stem that receives the -logy ending; such as, bio + logy.
Through the years -ology and -logy have come to mean, "study of" or "science of" and either of these suffixes often utilize the form of -ologist, "one who (whatever the preceding element refers to)".
The examples shown in this unit represent just a small fraction of the many words that exist in various dictionaries.
2. An interdisciplinary field of scientific research that explores interactions between the biosphere and the lithosphere and/or the atmosphere.
3. The study of terrestrial life.
2. The time sequence of the earth’s history as governed by geological events.
3. The science of dating and the study of time in relation to the earth's history as revealed by geological data.
2. The branch of geology that studies the movement of subsurface water through rocks and the effect of moving water on rocks, including their erosion.
The term geohydrology is often used interchangeably with hydrogeology. Some make the minor distinction between hydrologists or engineers who are applying themselves to geology (geohydrology), and geologists applying themselves to hydrology (hydrogeology).
One geologist claimed that geologists go to rock'n'roll concerts for entertainment and when they relax, they do it in a rocking chair; but their favorite kind of transportation is a rocket.
2. The science which includes the structure and mineral constitution of the globe; structural geology.
3. The study or science of the earth, its history, and its life as recorded in the rocks; includes the study of geologic features of an area; such as, the geometry of rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation.
2. That branch of geology that studies the characteristics, processes that shape them, and configurations and evolutions of rocks and land forms.
Geomorphologists seek to understand landform history and dynamics, and predict future changes through a combination of field observations, physical experiments, and numerical modeling.
The discipline is practiced within geology, geography, archaeology, and civil and environmental engineering. Early studies in geomorphology are the foundations for pedology, one of two main branches of soil science.
Geomorphology is the science of landforms. It is the science that provides us with a closer look at the earth's surface and the processes that have formed them.
Although geomorphology is concerned with landforms that currently exist, past landforms and events must be examined in order to fully understand how they came about.
Although the term geomorphology is a relatively new term (1880's), the examination of the forces of nature that have impacted the earth's surface extends back into the days of early Greek and Roman philosophers; such as, Aristotle and Seneca.
Their writings included ideas on stream erosion, earthquakes, and other deformations. Though these early philosophers speculated on the ideas of landscape evolution, these processes and thoughts were not fully examined until just before the 1800's.
2. Research in the study of aging as a biological, sociological, and psychological process; geriatric medicine: The branch of gerontology in medicine interested Ralph and he decided to do more investigating in this area since his grandparents were already up in their 90s.
3. The scientific study of the process and problems of aging and of age-related diseases of humans: Nancy thought that she could specialize in gerontology knowing that the population where she lived was getting older and older and requiring special medical attention.
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Aging, a potential crisis in China
- The proportion of elderly people is growing faster in China than in any major country, with the number of retirees set to double between 2005 and 2015, when it will reach 200 million.
- By mid-century, 430 million people (about a third of the population) will be retirees.
- That increase will place enormous demands on the country's finances and could threaten the underpinnings of the Chinese economy, which has thrived for decades on the cheap labor of hundreds of millions of young, uneducated workers from the countryside.
- Changes in China's population structure are taking place hand in hand with changes in the structure of the family.
- The country's so-called one-child policy, which began in 1980, means that beginning with the current gene5ration of young adults, couples will face the stark task of caring for four parents through old age.
- In addition, the ratio of workers to retired people will decline from about six to one now to about two to one by 2040.
- Of course, raising the retirement age from the current 50 to 55 for women and 55 to 60 for men to bring them more in line with international norms would ease a substantial amount of pressure on the pension system.
- Raising the retirement ages presents another set of problems for the government, Chinese social security experts say.
- Last year, for example, 4.13 million young Chinese graduated from universities, and fully 30 percent of them are still unemployed.
- Unemployment is high among non-university graduates, as well. Prolonging employment for older workers would make this predicament worse, possibly with volatile consequences.
- Meanwhile, breaking a lifelong promise and abruptly extending the retirement age would create another large class of malcontents.
- The bind that China finds itself in takes form in an often-posed question: Can the country grow rich before it grows old? Increasingly, experts in China say the answer, which also has huge implication for the global economy, appears doubtful.
- For all of the experts' talk of a looming crisis, many Chinese seem only dimly aware of the country's predicament and many middle-aged people say they have only belatedly begun to prepare themselves for retirement.