nephr-, nephro-, nephri-, -nephric

(Greek: nephros; kidney, kidneys)

hepatonephric, hepatorenal
Referring to or pertaining to the liver and kidneys; such as, the hepatorenal ligament.
The accumulation of urine in and distension of the renal pelvis and calyces due to obstructed out-flow.
hyperadrenalemia, hyperepinephrinemia
A greater than normal concentration of epinephrine in the blood.

Epinephrine is a substance produced by the medulla (inside) of the adrenal gland.

The name epinephrine was coined in 1898 by the American pharmacologist and physiologic chemist (biochemist) John Jacob Abel who isolated it from the adrenal gland which is located above (epi-) the kidney (Greek nephros).

Epinephrine causes increased rapidness of the heart beat, strengthens the force of the heart's contraction, opens up the airways (bronchioles) in the lungs, and has numerous other effects.

A malignant kidney tumor that tends to produce no symptoms or signs until a relatively late stage; from a mistaken belief that the tumor arose from the adrenal gland above the kidney.
Removal of a kidney by an incision in the loin.
Any renal (kidney) disease due to or related to calculi or "kidney stones".
A rare tumor of the female genital tract, most often the ovary.
mesonephros, mesonephra, mesonephroi
1. The second of the three excretory organs that develop in a vertebrate embryo, becoming the functioning kidney in fish and amphibians but replaced by the metanephros (embryonic organ of excretion in reptiles, birds, and mammals that develops into the kidney) in higher vertebrates.
2. The second type of excretory organ to develop in the vertebrate embryo.

It consists of a series of twisting tubules which arise from the mephrogenic cord caudal to the pronephros and that at one end from the glomerulus and at the other connect with the excretory mesonephric duct.

The organ is the permanent kidney in lower animals, but in human and various other mammals it is functional only during early embryonic development and is later replaced by the metanephros, although the duct system is retained and incorporated into the male reproductive system.

nephradenoma (s) (noun), nephradenomas; nephradenomata (pl)
Adenoma of the kidney: Dr. Williams diagnosed Jim with a case of nephradenoma, which was a benign glanular tumor in one of his kidneys.
nephralgia (s) (noun), nephralgias (pl)
Neuralgia in the kidneys: Different causes for nephralgia include kidney cancer, a kidney disease, and a bladder infection.
nephrapostasis (s) (noun), nephrapostases (pl)
An abscess of the kidney: After Jenny went to see her doctor because of a pain in her body, Dr. Greyson diagnosed her as having nephrapostasis, a purulent infection of one of her excretory organs which contained pus.
nephrectomy, nephrectomize
Kidney removal or a surgical procedure to remove a kidney.

This surgery is done under general anesthesia (asleep and pain-free) while the surgeon makes a cut in the abdomen or in the side of the abdomen (flank area). A rib may need to be removed to perform the procedure.

The ureter (the tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder) and the blood vessels are cut away from the kidney and the kidney is removed. The cut is then closed.

Kidney removal may be done as open surgery, which involves a large cut in the side of the abdomen. Some patients may have laparoscopic surgery, which is less invasive and involves three or four small cuts, usually no more than an inch each, in the abdominal and flank areas.