geo-, ge- +

(Greek: earth, land, soil; world; Gaia (Greek), Gaea (Latin), "earth goddess")

ageotropic (adjective) (not comparable)
Not reacting to gravity, thus moving or turning away from the earth: Some kinds of ivy are ageotropic in that the plants secure their roots in the trucks of trees while growing upwards into the branches.

Maybe a hot-air balloon is considered to be ageotropic because the aircraft is lighter than air and rises up into the atmosphere and is carried by or progresses with the wind.

ageotropism (s) (noun), ageotropisms (pl)
1. The absence of orientation movements in response to gravity: When participating in a space flight simulator, the astronaut experienced ageotropism and so he had no sense of responding to gravity.
2. Turning away from the earth: Elena was studying plant ageotropism and so she was growing plants in a gravity-free environment.
3. A part of a plant that would be expected to grow as gravity pulls it down, but instead grows upward, such as the knee roots of cypress trees: Marcella tripped over the ageotropisms of the tree in the swamp because the roots were sticking up out of the earth.
agrogeological, agrogeologic (adjective); more agrogeological, most agrogeological; more agrogeologic, most agrogeologic
A reference to the study of rock minerals in regard to the importance in farming and horticulture, especially with regards to soil fertility and fertilizer components.

Additional details regarding agrogeological fertilization

By adding rock dust as a complete plant fertilizer along with plant matter, the soil may be much healthier.

  • Rock dusts contain most of the nutrients essential for growth except for nitrogen and phosphorous.
  • The release of nutrients is directly related to weathering, therefore their beneficial effect could last for many years before needing replacement, and even longer if used in conjunction with sustainable farming techniques.
  • The problem of nutrient leaching is minimized as plants take up the nutrients at the same rate as they are being released, and there is also a minimal problem with toxicity from an oversupply of nutrients.
  • Some dusts raise pH, countering the effects of soil acidity often found in certain soils.

If the soil is healthier then the plants will be healthier. Mixed rock dust can provide a full spectrum of minerals to the soil and this improves cellular structure, which could explain why rock dusted plants are more resistant to insect attacks and diseases.

It has been noted that the use of rock dust can reduce (or even replace) fertilizers, pesticides, fungicides and herbicides.

—Excerpts from "Soil Remineralization"
by Philip C. Madeley of Manchester Metropolitan University, England.
agrogeologically (adverb), more agrogeologically, most agrogeologically
Concerning how rock minerals are used in farming and horticulture: Jake had a farm and was interested in agrogeologically fertilizing his crops.
agrogeologist (s) (noun), agrogeologists (pl)
Someone who specializes in the study of minerals that are important to farming and horticulture: The agrogeologist is especially interested in the relationships of soil fertility and the various fertilizer components.
agrogeology (s) (noun), agrogeologies (pl)
The branch of geology dealing with soil, crops, and horticultural sciences, and focusing on practical approaches to land management in developing and developed countries: Agrogeology is the study of minerals of importance to farming and horticulture, especially with regards to soil fertility and fertilizer components. These minerals are usually essential plant nutrients and are referred to as agrominerals.

Expanding the understanding of agrogeology

Agrogeology is the study of the natural fertilization that takes place when weathering breaks rocks into their constituent elements. It was first studied in the early nineteenth century, however the success of the artificial fertilizers eliminated interest in this natural approach until the late 1970s when Dr. Chesworth, a geologist at the University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada, combined his theoretical studies of rock decomposition to determine that weathering of a common volcanic rock, like basalt, made land more fertile.

Continuing studies indicate that volcanic rocks like basalt supply the nutrients necessary for plant and animal growth. The essential elements for plant growth include: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, boron, molybdenum and chlorine. In addition, the presence of rock fragments in the soil and on the soil surface significantly influences infiltration, runoff, and moisture storage, all of which significantly effect plant growth.

In recent years, soil scientists have conducted numerous studies to reduce the application of chemical fertilizers on the nation's farmlands. Results from these analyses indicate remineralization can achieve a series of benefits:

  • Combat the effects of pests and diseases that effect plant growth.
  • Reduce the water requirements necessary for plant growth.
  • Lower the cost of production and produce higher yields on treated lands.
  • Provide the necessary nutrients to increase the quality and quantity of the plants grown.
—John O. Rudd, Agrogeological Evaluation

amphigean (adjective) (not comparable)
1. In botany, a reference to a plant that has underground as well as aerial flowers: Some plants are amphigean in that they produce flowers from a rootstock.
2. Concerning something that stretches around the Earth: Various amphigean plant species or genera exist at about the same latitude around the world.
anthropogeographer (s) (noun), anthropogeographers (pl)
Someone who specializes in the physical features of the Earth and its atmosphere: The anthropogeographer investigates or does research about human activities as they affect and are affected by the distribution of populations and resources, land use, and industries.
anthropogeography (s) (noun), anthropogeographies (pl)
A branch of human studies that deals with the world's distribution of people based on their physical characteristics, languages, customs, and institutions: Greg read about anthropogeography as the worldwide distribution of human types by their cultural traits and by their ethnic and racial characteristics.
antigaeic (adjective), more antigaeic, most antigaeic
1. Referring to an antagonism to the Earth, its systems, and biota; anti-nature: Some of the kids in school seemed to be very antigaeic because they damaged and even pulled out some of the bushes and flowers that had been planted right next to the school building.
2. Etymology: from anti-, "against" plus Gaea, "earth goddess".
apogee (s) (noun), apogees (pl)
1. The point at which a satellite orbiting an astronomical object is farthest from the center of the object being orbited: Jill couldn't see the spacecraft anymore through her telescope because the spacecraft was at its apogee, and so very far away!

The apogee is the point in an orbit that is most distant from the body being orbited.
2. The point in the orbits of the moon around the Earth, or of an artificial satellite, that is most distant from the center of the Earth: When in class, Jill learned that the apogee, or the most distant point of orbit around the moon, was opposite of the perigee, which was the nearest point of the moon to the Earth.
3. The farthest, or highest point; a culmination: In his career, James reached the apogee of being president of the business when he turned thirty.

apogeotropic (adjective), more apogeotropic, most apogeotropic
Characterized by the response by an organism by turning away from the earth: Apogeotropic plant stems and leaves grow upward from the soil where they exist.
apogeotropism (s) (noun), apogeotropisms (pl)
The growth or orientation of certain plants to flourish up away from the earth in which they grow: The condition of apogeotropism can be seen by the trunks of trees and their leaves that develop towards the sky.
apogeotropy (s) (noun), apogeotropies (pl)
The tendency of parts of plants to turn upward when developing: The property of apogeotropy pertains to the growth of most vegetation in which the stems, trunks, and the leaves all grow towards the sky, and therefore away from the soil of the earth.

Apogeotropy is the opposite of geotropism.

archaeogeological, archeogeological (adjective); more archaeogeological, most archaeogeological; more archeogeological, most archeogeological
Referring to ancient geological conditions or situations: For a long time Vesuvius and Pompeii had been an archaeogeological mystery. Bodies found on dense layers of ash indicate that the volcano had been actively pouring pumice and ash into the atmosphere for some time, but also that the inhabitants had felt secure enough not to flee.

When the end came, however, it came so quickly that people were caught wherever they were. Hundreds of people in Herculaneum, who had time to run and find refuge in doored arched storage caverns, were still exposed to such surface temperatures. It is written that a hand raised to protect the face was burned to the bone, while the other hand, unexposed to the blast, was not.

Available for further enlightenment: the Earth, Words from the Myths.

Cross references of word families related directly, or indirectly, to: "land, ground, fields, soil, dirt, mud, clay, earth (world)": agra-; agrest-; agri-; agro-; argill-; choro-; chthon-; epeiro-; glob-; lut-; myso-; pedo-; pel-; rhyp-; soil-; sord-; terr-.