citadel (s) (noun)
, citadels (pl)
1. A fortress or a strongly fortified building in or near a city, used as a place of protection or refuge: It is obvious that more citadels are needed by many cities and countries in our modern times to protect their citizens against attacks by terrorists who have no regard for the lives of innocent people!
2. An organization or institution which strongly defends a particular way of life or principle; center of strength: Tom's university was a citadel which prepared students to face their futures with skills that will make it possible for them to live better lives.
3. Etymology: from 1586, "fortress commanding a city", from Italian cittadella, diminutive (small version) of cittade, "city", from Latin civitatem.
citizen (s) (noun)
, citizens (pl)
Someone who is legally a resident of a country, or community, and has the rights and protection of that nation or locality: Tom is a citizen of England and so he speaks British English and he has a right to health care and all of the other privileges that other citizens have.
citizenry (s) (noun)
, citizenries (pl)
All of the legally recognized members of a country, or a state, who have the rights and protection of that nation: The citizenry of San Francisco were encouraged to vote in the election for mayor and other officials.
city (s) (noun)
, cities (pl)
1. A place where people live and work which is larger than a town: More people seem to be leaving villages and small towns and moving to cities where more jobs are available (sometimes).
2. The people of a large community in a country: Monroe thinks that the entire city has heard the news about the results of the local elections by now.
1. Relating to a big town and its governing administration: The business and civic leaders were striving to increase economic growth for its residents.
2. Pertaining to the duties or activities of people in relation to their local area: Just because the Jone's family was very poor, they still had legal access to education, voting, and all of the other civic rights that were granted to those who had better economic conditions.
, more civically, most civically
1. Relating to the government of a town: The civically elected officials of a municipality are responsible for making living conditions acceptable for all of those who are living there.
2. A reference to the duties and obligations of belonging to a community: Efforts were being made by everyone in the small town to have the civically best educational system that is possible.
Relating to the rights and responsibilities of those who live together in towns or other inhabited regions: The civics project, which was started by a teacher, was established to involve students and their parents in working together to improve their lives and also better conditions for others in their urban area.
civics (pl) (used as a singular) (noun)
1. A school subject in which students study how governments work and what people’s rights, duties, and responsibilities are as residents: The high school class in civics emphasized that everyone should do his or her best to have equality for everyone.
2. The study of the way in which governments work; and of the rights, the privileges, and the obligations of those who live in a municipality: When the mayor spoke to local groups, he tried to point out that civics was more than an educational study, but that all of them are responsible for doing what they can do to make life better, not only for themselves, but for everyone in the district.
civies (pl) (noun) (no singular)
An informal word for clothing that is worn by people who are not on duty for the armed forces and which is not part of a military uniform: Sergeant Jones took off his uniform, put it in the closet, and changed into his civies before he went shopping downtown.
1. Referring to people who live in a country: There are several places that have been living in periods of civil
unrest; and Syria is just one of them.
2. Relating to the normal business of the people in a town, a state, etc. which is not connected to the armed forces or to a religion: Jim and Jane were married in a civil
ceremony at city hall.
There are civil organizations that involve people who are interested in achieving special objectives; such as, better education, more medical support, and other benefits for its local region and the nation.
3. Descriptive of being polite, but not friendly: It was difficult for Caroline to be civil
with Bill because she was so angry at him for his unjustified accusations she was cheating on the history test.
4. Pertaining to caring about art, science, government, people's well-being, etc.: Marge insisted that a civil
society will not only have honest and reliable officials, but that it will also provide care for its less fortunate citizens.
5. A reference to laws that describe a person's rights instead of to laws about crime: Harry and Harriet filed a civil
suit against the company that made the toy which poisoned their little boy.
civil engineering (s) (noun) (no plural form)
A livelihood in science that includes planning, design, construction, and the maintenance of fixed structures and ground facilities for industry, for transportation, for use and control of water, for human occupancy, and for harbor facilities: Susanne now has a degree in civil engineering so she can help in the designing and the building of better roads, highways, and bridges for the infrastructure of her country.
civil law (s) (noun)
, civil laws (pl)
Legal rules which involve the rights of people rather than with crimes: As a lawyer, Jeff was not only defending those who were accused of committing a crime, but also with civil law
for those who felt that the government was illegally restricting their rights.
Civil law is also concerned with private relations between members of an inhabited area rather than with criminal, military, or religious affairs.
civil liberty (s) (noun)
, civil liberties (pl)
The rights of people to do or to say things that are not illegal without being stopped or interrupted by their government: Freedom of speech is considered a civil liberty
for people in the United States and in some other nations; but not in every country.
Civil liberties also involve individual rights that are protected by law from unjust governmental or other kinds of interference.
civil marriage (s) (noun)
, civil marriages (pl)
A wedding ceremony that is performed by someone who is not a minister or priest: The mayor of the town has officiated at many civil marriages
during his time in office.
Civil marriages are performed, with dignity, as a civil contract without a religious ceremony.
civil right (s) (noun)
, civil rights (pl)
The principles of justice regarding the fundamental privileges that are guaranteed by the 13th and 14th amendments of the U.S. Constitution, and acts of Congress, including legal, social, and economic equality; which belongs to every citizen: Civil rights exist for every one, regardless of a person's gender, race, or religion.