poen-, peno-, poino-, poin-, puni-, pain-, penal-, pent-

(Greek > Latin: pain, punishment, penalty)

counterpunch (s) (noun), counterpunches (pl)
1. An attack or a blow made by a boxer in response to an opponent's hitting him: During their fight the two boys gave each other counterpunches until one fell backwards and couldn't get up again.
2. Etymology: meaning of "to hit with the fist" was first recorded 1520's, probably influenced by punish; the noun sense of "a blow with the fist" is recorded by 1570's; from Middle English punchen, "to thrust, prod; from Old French poinçonner, ponchonner, "to emboss with a punch; from poinçon, ponchon, "pointed tool"; from Latin punire, "to inflict a penalty on, to cause pain for some offense"; from earlier poenire, from poena, "penalty, punishment".
impunity (s) (noun), impunties (pl)
1. An exemption from punishment, harm, or recrimination as a result of one's actions or words: In some countries, impunity seems to give some people the license to commit grave crimes.
2. Freedom from any risk of retribution for doing something wrong or bad: Impunity applies to someone who is given the right to say or do something that others would not have privilege to do.
3. Etymology: from the 1530's which came from Latin impunitatem, impunitas, "freedom from punishment, omission of punishment"; from impunis, "unpunished, without punishment"; from in-, "not" + poena, "punishment".

The root word punity, has the same origin as "punished". When the negative im-, "not" is added, then impunity has the meaning of "not being punished" for what someone says or does.

Freedom from punishment for breaking the rules.
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Nemo debet bis puniri pro uno delicto (Latin statement)
No one ought to be punished twice for one offense.

No one shall be placed in peril (jeopardy) of legal penalties more than once upon the same accusation.

Double jeopardy is forbidden in the United States constitution and protects against a second prosecution for the same offense after acquittal or conviction and against multiple punishments for the same offense.

pain (s) (noun), pains (pl)
1. The acutely unpleasant physical discomfort experienced by someone who is violently struck, injured, or ill: Mary was in severe pain with a broken hip that was caused by falling down the stairs.

2. A sensation of pain in a particular part of the body: The child was complaining of pains in the lower abdomen.
3. Severe emotional or mental distress: Doug suffered a pain of rejection.
4. Someone, or something, that is extremely annoying or causes many problems: Peggy's constant complaining was a real pain.
painful (adjective), more painful, most painful; painfuller, painfullest
1. Relating to the act of causing distress or suffering, either mental or physical: Marsha was sick, her glands were swollen and quite painful.
2. Concerning great effort or labor; laborious: The long hike up the steep mountain to the peak was really painful.
3. Descriptive of the agony of a bodily discomfort, hurt, irritation: Russel had a very bad sunburn which was very painful, especially when he wanted to sit down!
painfully (adverb), more painfully, most painfully
1. Regarding how something is done poorly or badly: During the recital, Meg sang the song painfully and dreadfully.
2. Descriptive of how something takes place in an agonizing or unpleasant way: After Ginnie sprained her ankle, she limped painfully to the bus stop.
painless (adjective), more painles, most painles
1. Regarding something that is without agony or trouble: The elderly Mrs. Jackson died in a quick and painless way without suffering at all.
2. Concerning something that is easy or not difficult: Frank's mother told him that there was no painless way to get around doing his homework for the next day!
painlessly (adverb), more painlessly, most painlessly
Descriptive of how something is performed without discomfort or suffering: When Alice wanted to have her ears pierced, she went to a specialist who did it painlessly.
painlessness (s) (noun) (no pl)
The lack of agony or suffering: At the dentist's office, Bridget experienced the painlessness of having her teeth checked, just like the dentist had explained to her.
painstaking (adjective), more painstaking, most painstaking
1. Relating to something which is done in a very careful, precise, or conscientious way: After years of painstaking research, a cure was found by the medics for Tim's physical suffering.
2. Concerning something which shows diligent and meticulous work and effort: Gertrud's local newspaper presented the illegal processes with painstaking care about how some criminals were taking advantage of people by pretending to be relatives who were in great financial need.
A reference to being very careful.
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penal (adjective) (not comparable)
1. Concerning punishment: Tom had to do penal servitude because of committing an unforgivable crime.
2. Punishable; relating to being subject to punishment: The penal offence that James committed went to court where he was sentenced to prison for a year.
3. Descriptive of a place of correction: Because he was found guilty of the terrible crime, he was sent to a penal institution for many years.
penalization (s) (noun), penalizations (pl)
Punishment; the action of punishing: Tommy had to undergo penalization, or detension, by staying in school after the last period because of very bad behavior.
penalize (verb), penalizes; penalized; penalizing
1. To impose or to administer a punishment on someone: Greg was driving extremely fast in front of the school and the cop penalized him with a very expensive ticket for doing it!
2. To put at an unfavorable disadvantage: The present health care program needs to be revised because it penalizes divorced women with children!
penally (adverb), more penally, most penally
Pertaining to how someone can be accused in a punishing manner; punitively; punitorily: Because Chuck drove way over the speed limit in front of a hospital, he was certainly penally indictable for his offence.
penalty (s) (noun), penalties (pl)
1. A legal sentence: James threw his garbage out into the park and received a penalty in which had had to clean up the park two times a week for 6 months in a row.
2. A certain financial payment for an early withdrawal from an investment or savings account: Mr. and Mrs. Lawson needed more money for their vacation and found out that they would have to pay a penalty by losing quite a lot of money if they did so.
3. In sports, a punishment for violating the rules: In some sports, a penalty can be that a player must be removed from the game.

Cross references related to "pain, hurt; suffering, injury" word families: -agra; algesi-; algo-; angina-; dolor-; Masochism; noci-; odyno-; pono- (toil, work; pain); Sadism.