(Latin: prefix; to, toward, a direction toward, addition to, near, at; and changes to: ac-, af-, ag-, al-, an-, ap-, aq-, ar-, as-, at- when ad- is combined with certain words that begin with the letters c, f, g, l, n, p, q, r, s, and t)

The Latin element ad carries the idea of "in the direction of" and combines with many Latin words and roots to make common English words.

The form ad- appears in this form before a vowel and before the consonants d, h, j, m, and v. It is simplified to a- before sc, sp and st.

Before c, f, g, l, n, p, q, r, s, and t; ad- is changed to ac-, af-, ag-, al-, an-, ap-, aq-, ar-, as-, and at-.

In other words, the d of ad usually changes into the same letter as the first letter of the following root or word when it is a consonant: ad-fix becomes affix, and ad-sign becomes assign; therefore, making a double consonant.

Another example includes: attract as with ad-tract (drawn towards); so it has a double t. On the other hand when ad- precedes a vowel, as with adapt, it is simply ad-apt, with one d. For the same reason, there is only one d in adore and adumbrate, because ad- has combined with orare and umbra each of which starts with a vowel.

So, remember: since these Latin words begin with vowels and not consonants, the d of ad does not double as shown in the previous examples.

a capite ad calcem (Latin motto)
Translation: "From head to heel; thoroughly."

Equivalent to "from top to bottom".

Ab ovo usque ad mala (Latin phrase)
Translation: "From the egg to the apples."

A Roman phrase similar to English, "From soup to nuts"; but it means "From start to finish". This meaning is based on the fact that Roman dinners often started with eggs and ended with fruit.

From the beginning to the end of any enterprise; thoroughly, or without qualification.

Ab uno ad omnes (Latin phrase)
Translation: "From one to all."
Abiit ad majores.
He has gone to his forefathers.

He’s dead.

accede (ahk SEED) (verb), accedes; acceded; acceding
To comply with; consent to, approve; concede, yield to, acquiesce; to agree with, surrender to, comply with, conform to: "The mayor acceded to the citizens' demands."
Up to; so as to make; used in medicine.
@, at, or to.

Used to express the cost of individual items.

This prefix, ad-, appears before vowels and before the consonants d, h, j, m, and v: et al.

Before sc, sp, and st; ad- is simplified to a-: ascend, aspect, et al.

Before c-, ad- is assimilated to ac-: accelerate, accept, accept, accident, accord, accumulate, accurate, accurate, et al.

Before f, ad- becomes af-: affable, affect, affidavit, affiliate, affinity, affirm, affix, afflatus, afflict, affluence, et al.

Before g, ad- becomes ag-: agglomeration, agglutinate, aggrandize, aggravate, aggravate, aggregate, aggression, aggressive, aggressive, aggressor, et al.

Before l, ad- becomes al-: allege, allegiance, alleviate, alliteration, allocate, allude, allure, allusion, alluvium, et al.

Before n, ad- becomes an-: annex, annihilate, annotate, announce, annul, annulment, et al.

Before p, ad- becomes ap-: apparatus, appeal, appearance, append, appendage, appendix, appetite, applaud, applause, applicable, application, applied, apply, appoint, apportion, apposition, appraise, appreciate, apprehend, apprentice, approach, appropriate, approve, approximate, et al.

Before q, ad- becomes ac-: acquaint, acquaintance, acquiesce, acquiescence, acquire, acquisition, acquital, et al.

Before r, ad- becomes ar-: arrears, arrest, arrive, arrogant, et al.

Before s, ad- becomes as-: ascent, ascertain, ascribe, aspect, , assail, assailant, assault, assemble, assent, assert, assertion, , asset, assiduous, assign, assignment, assist, assistant, associate, assonance, assortment, assuage, assume, assumption, assurance, assure, assuredly et al.

ad absurdum (adverb), more ad absurdum, most ad absurdum
A reference to an argument demonstrating the ridiculousness of an opponent's proposition: "To what is absurd; to the point absurdity or inconsistent with obvious truth, reason, or sound judgment."
ad annum
Up to the year.

Used to indicate a specific year date.

ad astra
To the stars.
Ad astra per aspera. (Latin motto)
Translation: "To the stars through difficulties" or "To the stars in spite of difficulties."

The motto of the state of Kansas, USA and Campbell University, Buies Creek, North Carolina, USA.

This motto suggests that we achieve great things only by encountering and overcoming adversities; it will be rough going, but we will make it.

Ad augusta per angust. (Latin motto)
Translation: "To honors through difficulties."

Augusta refers to holy places, angusta to narrow spaces; therefore, sometimes we can not achieve great results without suffering by squeezing through narrow spaces.

ad calendas graecas
At the Greek calends; that is, never; or when hell freezes over.

This statement refers to the calends, the first day of the month, that was a feature of the Roman calendar, but the Greeks had no calends.

The calends was the day that interest on borrowed money was to be paid, so for Roman debtors they were tristes calendae, "the unhappy calends".

Ad captandam benevolentiam (Latin motto)
Translation: "To win good will."

For the purpose of winning good will.