atmospheric radiation (s) (noun)
, atmospheric radiations (pl)
In geophysics, the radiation emitted by the atmosphere either upward into space or downward toward the earth, consisting mainly of long-wavelength terrestrial radiation plus the small amount of short-wavelength solar radiation absorbed in the atmosphere.
atmospheric radiation measurement (s)
, ARM; (noun)
, atmospheric radiation measurements (pl)
1. An instrument used for the detection or measurement of electromagnetic radiation.
The term is applied in particular to devices used to measure infrared radiation.
2. A receiver for detecting microwave thermal radiation and similar weak wide-band signals that resemble noise and are obscured by receiver noise.
The primary application of an atmospheric radiometer has been on board spacecraft measuring atmospheric and terrestrial radiation, and they are mostly used for meteorological or oceanographic remote-sensing.
Their secondary application is also meteorological, as zenith-pointing surface instruments that view the earth's atmosphere in a region above the stationary instrument.
By understanding the physical processes associated with energy emission at these wavelengths, scientists can calculate a variety of surface and atmospheric parameters from these measurements, including air temperature, sea surface temperature, salinity, soil moisture, sea ice, precipitation, the total amount of water vapor and the total amount of liquid water in the atmospheric column directly above or below the instrument.
atmospheric radio wave (s) (noun)
, atmospheric radio waves (pl)
A radio wave that is propagated by reflection through the atmosphere by reflections and refractions occurring in the atmosphere: "Atmospheric radio waves may include either the ionospheric wave or the tropospheric wave, or both of them."
atmospheric refraction (s) (noun)
, atmospheric refractions (pl)
1. The light passing through the earth's atmosphere, including both astronomical refraction and terrestrial refraction.
2. An apparent upward displacement of celestial objects relative to the horizon as light from them is bent toward the vertical by the decreasing density with altitude of the earth's atmosphere.
It is greatest for objects on the horizon and negligible at elevations higher than about 45 degrees.
3. The angular difference between the apparent zenith distance of a celestial body and its true zenith distance, produced by refraction effects as the light from the body penetrates the atmosphere.
Any refraction caused by the atmosphere's normal decrease in density with height.
Near surfaces on the earth, those within a few meters or so, are usually dominated by temperature gradients.
atmospheric scattering (s) (noun)
, atmospheric scatterings (pl)
A diffusion or alteration in the direction of the propagation, frequency, or polarization of electromagnetic radiation through contact with, or by interaction with, the atoms in the atmosphere.
atmospheric scintillation (s) (noun)
, atmospheric scintillations (pl)
The twinkling of stars (fluctuation of intensity) as seen through a planet's atmosphere: "Atmospheric scintillation is caused when a star's light is distorted by the Earth's atmosphere and atmospheric scintillation is greater for bright stars that are low on the horizon."
atmospheric sounding (s) (noun)
, atmospheric soundings (pl)
The measuring of atmospheric conditions above the effective range of surface weather observations.
atmospheric steam curing (s) (noun)
, atmospheric steam curings (pl)
A process for bringing freshly placed concrete, or cement products, to a required strength and quality by maintaining the humidity and temperature at specified levels for a given period of time: "Atmospheric steam curing is usually done at a maximum ambient temperature between 100 and 200°F or 40 and 95°C."
atmospheric structure (s) (noun)
, atmospheric structures (pl)
The constituting elements that characterize the atmosphere, including wind direction and velocity, altitude, air density, and the velocity of sound.
atmospheric suspensoids (pl) (noun) (usually no singular)
Any particles; such as, dust that are finely divided and suspended in the air.
atmospheric tide (s) (noun)
, atmospheric tides (pl)
1. A movement of atmospheric masses caused by the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon and by daily solar heating; amplitudes are minute except in the upper atmosphere.
2. The rhythmic, periodic oscillation of the earth's atmosphere because of the gravitational effects of the earth, sun, and moon and to the absorption of radiation by the atmosphere.
3. A tidal movement of the atmosphere resembling an ocean tide but caused principally by diurnal temperature changes.
Both the sun and moon produce atmospheric tides, and there also exist both gravitational tides (gravitational attraction of the sun or moon) and thermal tides (differential heating of the atmosphere by the sun).
atmospheric turbidity (s) (noun)
, atmospheric turbidities (pl)
Haziness in the atmosphere due to aerosols; such as, dust: "When atmospheric turbidity is zero, the sky has no dust, as measured by a sun photometer; which is an instrument that measures luminous intensity or brightness, luminous flux, light distribution, color, etc.; usually, by comparing the light emitted by two sources, one source having certain specified standard characteristics."
atmospheric turbulence (s) (noun)
, atmospheric turbulences (pl)
Random fluctuations of the atmosphere often causing major deformations of its fluid flow: "Atmospheric turbulence involves the mixing of warm and cold air in the atmosphere by wind, which causes clear-air turbulence that is experienced during airplane flight; as well as, poor astronomical vision or the blurring of images seen through the atmosphere."
atmospheric window (s) (noun)
, atmospheric windows (pl)
1. A range of wavelengths in which the atmosphere is partly or largely transparent.
2. A wavelength band in the electromagnetic spectrum that is able to pass through the earth's atmosphere with relatively little attenuation through absorption, scattering, or reflection.
1. Electromagnetic radiation produced by natural phenomena; such as, lightning.
2. Atmospheric disturbances of electrical origin causing interference with communication in wireless telegraphy, television, etc.
3. Atmospheric conditions caused by electromagnetic disturbances; especially, as they affect radio transmission.
Cross references of word groups that are related, directly or indirectly, to: "air, wind":