terr-, terra-, -ter

(Latin: earth, dry land, land)

This unit presents many words that are used in references having to do with earth and land; that is, the loose, fragmented material that composes part of the surface of this planet that we live on.

Don't confuse this element with other words that are spelled in a similar way; such as, terrify, terrible.

territorial
1. Of or relating to the geographic area under a given jurisdiction; such as, the territorial limits of a country.
2. Relating or restricted to a particular territory; regional; such as, a territorial court.
territorial waters
Inland and coastal waters under the jurisdiction of a nation or state, especially the ocean waters within three or twelve miles (4.8 or 19.3 kilometers) of the shoreline.
territorialism
1. A social system that gives authority and influence in a state to the landowners.
2. A system of church government based on primacy of civil power.
territorialist
1. A reference to a social system that gives authority and influence in a state to landowners.
2. Characterized by a system of church government based on primacy of civil power.
territoriality, territory maintenance
1. The status of a territory.
2. A behavior pattern in animals consisting of the occupation and defense of a territory.

The behavior pattern in some animals in which they tend to remain within a certain area, primarily for the purpose of feeding, mating, and rearing their young; typically, this area is defended against members of the same species and also sometimes with other similar species.

territorialize
1. To make a territory of; to organize as a territory.
2. To extend by adding new territory.
3. To reduce to the status of a territory.
territorially
1. Referring to a territory.
2. In a territorial manner.
3. Protecting one's territory.
4. Displaying territoriality; such as, defending a territory from intruders.
territory, territories
1. An area of land; a region.
2. The land and waters under the jurisdiction of a government.
3. A political subdivision of a country; a geographic region; such as, a colonial possession, that is dependent on an external government; such as, the territories of the Holy Roman Empire.
4. A subdivision of the United State that is not a state and is administered by an appointed or elected governor and elected legislature; a similarly organized political subdivision of Canada or Australia.
5. An area for which a person is responsible as a representative or an agent; such as, a salesperson's territory.
6. In biology, an area occupied by a single animal, mating pair, or group and often vigorously defended against intruders, especially those of the same species.
7. About 1432, "land under the jurisdiction of a town, state, etc.", probably from Latin territorium "land around a town, domain, district", from terra "earth, land".

An alternate theory, somewhat supported by the vowels of the original Latin word, suggests derivation from terrere "to frighten"; as in terrible; therefore, territorium would mean "a place from which people are warned off".

The meaning of "any tract of land, district, region" is first indicated in 1610. Specific U.S. sense of "organized self-governing region not yet a state" is from 1799. Territorial waters is traced back to 1841; territorial imperative "animal need to claim and defend territory" is recorded from 1966.

terroir (s), terroirs (pl) (nouns)
The combination of local conditions or factors, including soil, climate, and the environment, all give a particular wine or a family of wines their distinctive character: "The superior quality of Burgundy wine depends on the French term of terroir (land, earth) because the mix of geography, geology and the influences of other elements determine the quality of wines."

"When wine specialists sip an outstanding wine, some of them will say, 'It's the terroir that made this possible!' "

torrefaction; torrifaction (noun)
1. That which is dried or roasted with an anaerobic heat treatment; for example, to make wood waterproof.
2. The process of drying by exposure to heat or fire.
3. In pharmacy, the drying or roasting of drugs on a metalline plate, placed over or close to coals of fire, until they become friable to the fingers (easily crumbled or pulverized or reduced to powder), or until some other desired effect is produced.
torrefied rhubarb (noun)
Rhubarb that has had its purgative powers diminished by roasting; however, its astringency is not affected.

Astringency is the taste experience that takes place when a substance causes the mouth to pucker.

torrefied; torrified (adjective)
Dried or roasted: "They replaced a large percentage of the coal with torrefied wood which is a process of roasting wood chips in a large furnace to remove the moisture and make the product more brittle and easier to burn."
torrefy, torrefies, torrefied, torrefying; torrify, torrifies, torrified, torrifying (verb forms)
1. To dry drugs, ores, etc. by subjection to intense heat.
2. To dry or to roast by direct exposure to fire or to other sources of heat; to parch.
3. To dry or to parch; such as, drugs on a metallic plate until they are reduced to the condition desired.
4. Etymology: from French torréfier, from Latin torrefacere, which came from torrere, "to dry, to parch" + facere, "to make".
torrid (adjective)
1. Extremely hot and unpleasant: "With a torrid weather condition and a torrid summer, it has been a terribly difficult summer."

"The parents brought a big umbrella to the picnic the family could decrease the heat of the torrid sun."

2. Steamy, passionate or showing or expressing very strong feelings; especially, of sexual or romantic desires: "They were known to have had a torrid love affair."

Their were rumors that their boss and his secretary were having a torrid affair."

3. Fast-paced, rapid: "He had a hard time keeping up with the torrid pace of his jogging partner."
4. Primarily British: very difficult, uncomfortable, or very unpleasant: The soccer team had a torrid time trying to make a score."
4. Etymology: Derived from Latin torridus, "dried from the heat; very hot".

Torrid usually describes things that are physically hot; in both the literal and the figurative senses, like the sun, or figuratively hot, like passion; for example, "a torrid love affair" is one full of hot passion.

tureen
1. A large deep serving dish with a cover; for serving soups and stews from earlier terrene.
2. About 1706, from French terrine "earthen vessel", from Old French therine (1412), from terrin (adj) "earthen", from Gallo-Romance terrinus, from Latin terrenus "of the earth".

The spelling with u may be an everyday equivalent to e before r and is said to have arisen in cookbooks.

—Info from Barnhart

Cross references of word families related directly, or indirectly, to: "land, ground, fields, soil, dirt, mud, clay, earth (world)": agra-; agrest-; agri-; agro-; argill-; choro-; chthon-; epeiro-; geo-; glob-; lut-; myso-; pedo-; pel-; rhyp-; soil-; sord-.