proto-, prot- +

(Greek: first; foremost, front, earliest form of, original, primitive; chief, principal; usually used as a prefix)

apolipoprotein
Any of the protein constituents of lipoproteins; grouped by function in four classes.
cryoprotein
A protein that precipitates from a solution when it is cooled and then redissolves when it is re-warmed.
fetoprotein
An antigen present in the human fetus and in certain pathological conditions in adults.

The amniotic fluid level can be used to evaluate fetal development. Elevated serum levels are found in adults with certain kinds of liver diseases.

glycoprotein, glycoproteins
1. Any of a group of complex proteins; such as, mucin, containing a carbohydrate combined with a simple protein.
2. Protein with linear or branched oligosaccharides (simple sugars) covalently bonded to it.

Examples include nearly all surface proteins of animal cells and many proteins circulating in blood.

hyperlipoproteinemia
1. Any of various disorders of lipoprotein metabolism, usually characterized by abnormally high levels of cholesterol and certain lipoproteins in the blood.
2. An excess of lipoproteins (any of the lipid-protein, or fat-protein, complexes in which lipids or fats exist) in the blood, due to a disorder of lipoprotein metabolism.

It may be acquired or hereditary. Acquired forms accompany other disorders or may be caused by environmental factors such as diet.

There are a number of different hereditary forms, classified according to clinical features, enzymatic abnormalities, and serum lipoprotein patterns.

hypolipoproteinemia
Decreased levels of a lipoprotein in the serum.
lipoprotein
1. Any of the lipid-protein complexes in which lipids are transported in the blood.
2. A molecule that is a combination of lipid and protein.

Lipids don't travel in the blood by themselves; however, they are carried through the bloodstream as lipoproteins.

mucoprotein
1. A complex protein found in mucous secretions.
2. Any of a group of organic compounds; such as, the mucins, that consist of a complex of proteins and glycosaminoglycans and are found in body tissues and fluids.
protein
A large molecule composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific order determined by the base sequence of nucleotides in the DNA coding for the protein.

Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's cells, tissues, and organs. Each protein has unique functions. Proteins are essential components of muscles, skin, bones and the body as a whole.

Examples of proteins include whole classes of important molecules, among them enzymes, hormones, and antibodies.

Protein is one of the three types of nutrients used as energy sources by the body, the other two being carbohydrate and fat. Proteins and carbohydrates each provide four calories of energy per gram, while fats produce nine calories per gram.

The word "protein" was introduced into science by the great Swedish physician and chemist, Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1779-1848), who also determined the atomic and molecular weights of thousands of substances, discovered several elements including selenium, first isolated silicon and titanium, and created the present system of writing chemical symbols and reactions.

Etymology: from French protéine, from Greek proteios, "the first quality"; from protos, "first". Originally a theoretical substance thought to be essential to life, the modern use is from German Protein, borrowed in English about 1907.

protein absorption
In the digestive process, hydrolyzation of proteins to their constituent amino acids in the walls of the intestines.

They are transported via the portal vein to the liver and then into the general circulation and to the tissues.

Each tissue synthesizes its own form of protein from the amino acids received from the blood.

proteinphobia (s) (noun) (no plural)
An intense antipathy towards protein foods: Dr. Smith thought that Jack, his patient, had proteinphobia and suggested that he should avoid eggs, dairy products, red meat, certain vegetables, grains, etc. for a certain amount of time.
proteinuria
The presence of excessive amounts of protein in the urine which is usually a symptom of a kidney disorder.
proteoglycans, protein-polysaccharides
1. Glycoproteins (complex proteins containing carbohydrates) which have a very high polysaccharide content; such as, starch and cellulose.

They are found primarily in connective tissue and cartilage.

2. Any of a group of glycoproteins in connective-body tissue, made of carbohydrates and protein.

They serve as binding or cementing materials for body tissues.

proteome (adjective)
A reference to the complete set of proteins which can be expressed by the genetic material of an organism: "An emerging approach for targeted proteome analysis is called selected reaction monitoring; SRM, in which a mass spectrometer is programmed to detect signals from multiple specific proteins."
proteome (s) (noun), proteomes (pl)
The entire set of proteins expressed by a genome, cell, tissue, or organism.

It is the set of expressed proteins in a given type of cells or an organism at a given time under specifically defined conditions.

The proteome is the totality of proteins (expressed genes) in an organism, tissue type or cell, and proteomics is now well-established as a term for studying the proteome.