proto-, prot- +

(Greek: first; foremost, front, earliest form of, original, primitive; chief, principal; usually used as a prefix)

proteomicist (s) (noun), proteomicists (pl)
A scientific specialist who studies the set o proteins that exist in the genome of an organism: "Jeremy's brother is a proteomicist who does research of the genetic information possessed by various organisms; such as, the human genome, the elephant genome, the bovine genome, the mouse genome, the honey bee genome, the yeast genome, and even the genome of bacterium, etc."
proteomics (plural form used in the singular) (noun)
1. The comprehensive analysis of the identity, interactions and locations of proteins within a cell: "Targeted proteomics refers to the detection, quantification and characterization of specific proteins of interest in biological samples."
2. The analysis of the expression, localization, functions, and interactions of the proteins produced by the genes of an organism: "Proteomics involves the qualitative and quantitative study of the proteome (complete set of proteins produced from the information encoded in a genome) under various conditions, including protein expression, modification, localization, and function; as a means of understanding various biological processes."

"Proteomics aims to work out the differences in protein action between diseased cells and healthy ones."

"One objective of proteomics is to find chemical markers to determine what’s going wrong when disease strikes and to diagnose disorders; another, is to find methods of gene therapy that will cure the problems at the level of the DNA in human genes."

"The term proteomics was coined in 1994 by Marc Wilkins, Professor in the School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences at the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; who defined it as 'the study of proteins, how they're modified, when and where they're expressed, how they're involved in metabolic pathways and how they interact with one another.' "

protium
Hydrogen with an atomic weight of one
protoarchaeology, protoarcheology
The study of prehistoric human artifacts and human fossils.
protobiology
The phase of science dealing with life forms more minute than bacteria; such as, the ultraviruses and bacteriophages.
protobiont
1. Initial structures during the origin of life which can show at least one property of life.
2. An aggregate of organic molecules surrounded by a membrane or a membrane-like structure.

Protobionts exhibit some of the properties associated with life, including simple reproduction, metabolism and excitability; as well as, the maintenance of an internal chemical environment different from that of their surroundings.

protobios
Ultramicroscopic life; such as, ultraviuses.
protocatarctical
"First to be fully sufficient."

At an important marriage of King Peleus and the sea nymph Thetis, all of the divinities were invited except the goddess Eris, who was known as the goddess of Discord. Even so, she threw a golden apple into the banqueting hall with the words For the Fairest.

Naturally, all of the goddesses wanted it, but in the end the choice was narrowed down to three: Aphrodite (goddess of sensual love and beauty), Hera (Juno, queen of heaven), and Pallas Athena (goddess of wisdom, arts, and warfare).

They asked Zeus, the chief god, to pick the one who should receive the golden apple, but he refused to have anything to do with the matter. He told them to go to Mount Ida, near Troy, where the young prince Paris, also known as Alexander, was taking care of his father's sheep, and who would be qualified to decide who should receive the apple.

The three goddesses made promises in order to influence his choice as to which one should be chosen as the fairest. Hera promised to make him Lord of Europe and Asia; Athena, that he would lead the Trojans to victory against the Greeks and lay Greece in ruins; and Aphrodite, that the fairest woman in all the world should be his.

Paris gave Aphrodite the golden apple. This was the "Judgment of Paris", famed everywhere as the real reason why the Trojan War was fought.

—Compiled from information located in Mythology by Edith Hamilton;
Little, Brown & Company; New York; 1962; page 179.

But the goddess, Eris, who had not been invited [to the wedding of King Peleus and the sea nymph Thetis; (added for clarification)], was determined to put the divine guests at loggerheads, and while Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite were chatting amicably together, arm in arm, she rolled a golden apple at their feet. Peleus picked it up, and stood embarrassed by its inscription: "To the fairest!", not knowing which of the three might be intended. This apple was the protocatarctical cause of the Trojan war.

—A quotation in The Greek Myths: Combined and Complete Edition
by Robert Graves (an English poet, translator, and novelist);
Penquin Publisher; 1992; page 271.

Special thanks to Brandon Chenault for providing the Robert Graves quotation.

protoclastic
Of or relating to igneous rocks (formed from liquid rock from volcanos that becomes solid as it gets cold) exhibiting granulation and deformation of earlier-formed crystals of constituent minerals, because of the differential flow of the magma before consolidation.
protocol (s) (noun), protocols (pl)
1. Correct behavior on official or ceremonial occasions: Protocol involves the correct rules of etiquette for diplomats.
2. The rules of correct or appropriate behavior of a group, an organization, or a profession: The administrative committee met last week to revise the protocol for future meetings.
3. A written record or preliminary draft of a treaty or other agreement: Jesse read the protocol for international trade before he decided how he would invest his savings.
Forms of ceremonies and behaviors.
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4. A set of technical rules for the transmission and receipt of information between computers: As he was learning to use a computer, Mike was careful to follow the protocols.
5. In medicine, a written plan specifying the procedures to be followed in giving a particular examination, conducting research, or providing care for a particular medical condition: The doctor emphasized the importance of following the medical protocols carefully for the well-being of the patients and the staff.
6. Originally, a leaf glued onto the case of a volume, with a summary or account of the manuscript; then, a record of the points made; especially, of an agreement at a conference; hence, the first draft of a document: The initial report of the committee was prefaced with a protocol that summarized the major points which were considered by the members of the committee.
7.Etymology: from the 1540's, as prothogall, "a draft of a document"; from Middle French prothocole (about 1200), from Medieval Latin protocollum, "draft"; litterally, "the first sheet of a volume" (on which contents and errors were written), from Greek protokollon, "first sheet glued onto a manuscript"; from protos, "first" + kolla, "glue".
protocol (verb), protocols; protocoled or protocolled; protocoling or protocolling
To write or to form the preliminary draft of an official document, a treaty; the rules of diplomatic and sate etiquette and ceremony, etc.
protocol converter
A device that translates the data transmission code and protocol of one computer or peripheral device to that of another computer or device, and so enabling communication between otherwise incompatible devices.
protoconch
1. The embryonic shell, or first chamber, of ammonites and other cephalopods; such as, the octopus, squid, cuttlefish, or nautilus (a mollusk with numerous tentacles, a horny beak, and a spiral shell with gas-filled chambers for buoyancy), having a large head, large eyes, prehensile tentacles, and, in most species, an ink sac containing a dark fluid used for protection or defense.
2. The oldest part of a gastropod shell, representing the area where shell development started in a larva.
protocontinent
A large unbroken mass of land capable of becoming a major continent.
protoculture
The simplest aspects of culture noted in nonhuman primates; such as, toolmaking and other innovative learned behaviors.