peni-, pen-

(Latin: paene, almost, nearly)

antepenult (s) (noun), antepenults (pl)
1. The third from the last syllable of a word: The antepenult is stressed as in the words get in for•get•ful•ness; per in su•per•flu•ous; lu in the word an•te•di•lu•vi•an; and ter in an•ter•i•or.
2. Etymology: from Latin ante-, "before" + penult, "next to the last syllable in a word".

Antepenult should be considered the part of a word that precedes the penult, "next to the last syllable" from Late Latin antepaenultima.

antepenultimate (s) (noun), antepenultimates (pl)
Anything that is the third from the end; especially, a syllable in a word: The antepenultimate stressed unit in the word immortality is tal, as in im-mor-tal-i-ty.
antepenultimate, antepaenultimate (adjective) (not comparable)
Two before the last: The antepenultimate comes immediately before the penultimate in a series; for example, a book that has 20 chapters, chapter 18 is the antepenultimate chapter in the book.

Other adjectives indicating such sections in words: ultimate (last), penultimate (one from the last), preantepenultimate (third from the last), propreantepenultimate (fourth from the last).

Baja California Peninsula (s) (noun) (no plural)
Land that extends or projects into a body of water but is connected to a mainland: A peninsula in western North America on the eastern side of Mexico is known as the Baja California Peninsula that is attached to Mexico and it is enclosed by the Gulf of California on one side and the Pacific Ocean on the other side.
Iberian Peninsula (s) (noun) (no plural)
The ground that jets out or expands out into water from the larger ground mass of southwest Europe which includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar: The Iberian Peninsula is separated from the rest of Europe on the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea, and on the north and west by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Pyrenees forming the northeast edge of the peninsula, connecting it to the rest of Europe.

The Iberian Peninsula is the second largest peninsula in Europe after the Scandinavian Peninsula.

peninsula (s) (noun), peninsulas (pl)
A piece of land that lengthens out into the ocean or sea and is almost completely surrounded by it: There are some people who confuse a peninsula with an island because they both have so much water around them; however, peninsulas are connected to the mainland while islands are completely encircled by water with no direct connection with it.

Part of Italy is a peninsula which looks like a boot and most peninsulas are narrow and long and they may look like an arm or a leg.

peninsular (adjective), more peninsular, most peninsular
Similar to or pertaining to a relatively narrow strip of land projecting into water from a larger land mass (with water on both sides): Florida is officially the "Sunshine State" and it is also referred to as the Peninsular State.

The peninsular part is the visible area of the Floridian plateau which separates the depths of the Atlantic Ocean from those of the Gulf of Mexico.

peninsularity (s) (noun), peninsularities (pl)
A section of the earth (land surface) surrounded on three sides by water, with the fourth side of it being connected to a continent or an island: The peninsularities of the world are usually parts of continents.
penult, penultima (s) (noun); penults, penultimas (pl)
1. The second to the last item in a series of things; especially, the next to the last syllable of a word: In the word penultima, the penult is ti as shown in, pe•nul•ti•ma.
2. Etymology: a shortened term for penultima, from Latin paenultima, feminine of paenultimus, "next to last" from paene, "almost" + ultimus, "last".
penultimate (pi NUL tuh mit, pin UL tuh mit) (adjective) (not comparable)
1. A reference to the second or next to the last in a series or a sequence: A penultimate segment in the word definition is ni as in def•i•ni•tion or it could refer to the next to last chapter in a book or that there is only one more show in a TV series.
2. Etymology: from Latin paene, "almost" and ultimus, "last".
Pertaining to something that is next to the last.
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penumbra (s) (noun), penumbrae (pl)
1. In astronomy, a partial outer shadow that is lighter than the darker inner shadow ("umbra"): Penumbra is the area between complete darkness and the complete light in an eclipse.
2. An indistinct area; especially, a situation in which something is unclear or uncertain: In astronomy, a penumbra is a grayish area surrounding the dark center of a sunspot.
3. The outer region or periphery of something: A penumbra area is covered by shadiness, so it is not completely dark.
4. Etymology: from Modern Latin penumbra. "partial shadow outside the complete shadow of an eclipse"; coined in 1604 by Kepler from Latin pæne, "almost" + umbra, "shadow".
penumbrous (adjective), more penumbrous, most penumbrous
1. That which is partially shaded: The visitors were impressed by the penumbrous calm of the interior of the cathedral.
2. A reference to being dubious, disreputable, or dishonest: Janet couldn't trust the salesman because she had the impression that he was a penumbrous person.
propreantepenultimate (adjective) (not comparable)
Pertaining to a rare term meaning the fourth syllable from the last one in a word that is written or spoken: If you have a book that has fifteen chapters then chapter twelve is the preantepenultimate part.
Scandinavian Peninsula (s) (noun) (no plural form)
A large promontory (high point of land that extends out into the sea) in northern Europe: The Scandinavian Peninsula is the largest peninsula of Europe, a continent that is itself a large peninsula of Eurasia; however, Europe contains several other large peninsulas, including the Balkan, the Iberian, and the Italian peninsulas.
Si quaeris peninsulam amoenam circumspice. (Latin motto)
Translation: "If you seek a pleasant [lovely] peninsula, look about you."

Motto of the State of Michigan, USA.