papillo-, papill-, papilli- +

(Latin: nipple; nipple-shaped elevation or growth)

human papilloma viruses, human papillomavirus (HPV)
A family of over 100 viruses including those which cause warts and are transmitted by contact.

Some types of HPV are associated with tumors of the genital tract including, notably, cancer of the cervix.

Of the more than 100 types of HPVs, over 30 types can be passed from one person to another through sexual contact.

Most genital HPV infections come and go over the course of a few years; however, sometimes HPV infection may persist for many years, with or without causing cellular abnormalities.

The majority of HPVs produce warts on the hands, fingers, and even the face. Most of these viruses are innocuous, causing nothing more than cosmetic concerns. HPVs also can cause painful plantar warts; for example on the soles of the feet.

Several types of HPV, however, are confined primarily to the moist skin of the genitals, producing genital warts and increasing the risk for cancer of the cervix.

The most common forms of human papilloma viruses cause cervical cancer

In the United States, cervical carcinoma was once a leading cause of death for women under the age of sixty. Routine Pap smear testing by gynecologists have dramatically reduced the numbers because they are able to catch the pre-cancerous changes HPV causes in cervical cells at an early stage.

  • Internationally, most of the world's women have no access to routine gynecological care and are rarely screened for any type of women's health problem.
  • One result is that cervical carcinoma annually kills some 300,000 women worldwide.
  • HPV is not solely transmitted through sexual contact.
  • It is considerably more contagious than HIV, syphilis or gonorrhea, and can be spread through handshakes, toilet seats, and childbirth; if the transmitting individual has genital warts, which is the most common visual evidence of HPV infection.
  • Human papilloma virus is so strong that it can not be blocked 100 percent even by proper condom use.
  • Even married, monogamous women get infected with HPV, and can contract terminal cancer.
  • Science and humanity should guide preventive policies; such as, with immunization vaccines, not by wishful thinking and moral absolutism.
  • —Excerpts from "HPV vaccination" by Laurie Garrett,
    International Herald Tribune, March 1, 2007; page 6.
Adjacent to or near the optic disk.
1. Myxoma (benign tumor composed of primitive connective tissue cells) combined with papilloma.
2. A benign neoplasm of epithelial tissue in which the stroma resembles primitive mesenchymal tissue.
papilla (s), papillae (pl)
1. A projection occurring in various animal tissues and organs.
2. A small blunt hair on plants.
3. Any small, nipplelike process or projection.
4. One of certain small protuberances concerned with the senses of touch, taste, and smell; such as, the papillae of the tongue.
5. A small vascular process at the root of a hair.
6. A papule or pimple.
papilla of the breast, nipple
1. The protuberance through which milk is drawn from the breast or mamma; the mammilla; a teat; a pap.
2. The orifice at which any animal liquid is discharged; such as, the oil from an oil bag.
3. Any small projection or article in which there is an orifice for discharging a fluid, or for other purposes; as, the nipple of a nursing bottle; or the nipple of a percussion lock.
Pertaining to or resembling papilla or nipple.
Resembling or covered with papillae.
Excision or the surgical removal of any papilla.
Swelling of the head of the optic nerve, a sign of increased intracranial pressure.

The optic nerve head, also called the optic disk or papilla, is the area where the optic nerve (the nerve that carries messages from the eye to the brain) enters the eyeball.

The finding of papilledema is made with the ophthalmoscope (the instrument that shines light through the pupil illuminating the retina while the doctor looks through it).

The optic nerve head is abnormally elevated in papilledema, almost always in both eyes.

The causes of papilledema include cerebral edema (swelling of the brain, as from encephalitis or trauma), tumors and other lesions that occupy space within the skull, increased production of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), decreased resorption of CSF (because of venous sinus thrombosis, meningitis, or subarachnoid hemorrhage), obstruction of the ventricular system within the brain, hydrocephalus, craniosynostosis (premature closure of the sutures of the skull), and a condition called pseudotumor cerebri.

papilliferous, papuliferous
1. Having papules.
2. Having pimples; pimply.
Shaped or formed like a papilla.
1. Inflammation of a papilla.
2. A form of optic neuritis involving the optic papilla (disk).
1. A small solid benign tumor with a clear-cut border that projects above the surrounding tissue.
2. A benign tumor of the skin or mucous membrane projecting from a surface; for example, a wart.
3. A small benign epithelial tumor; such as, a wart, consisting of an overgrowth of cells on a core of smooth connective tissue.
1. Papillary projections of the epidermis forming an undulating surface.
2. A disorder with numerous papillomas or wart growths.

Laryngeal papillomatosis is the presence of multiple papillomas on the vocal cords. It is most common in young children and is a result of the human papilloma virus (HPV).

A baby can get human papilloma virus or HPV by being born through a vaginal canal of a mother with genital warts which are also due to HPV.

Relating to, or a reference to, a papilloma.