linguo-, lingu-, lingua-, -linguist, -linguistic, -linguistical, -linguistically +

(Latin: literally tongue; and by extension, speech, language)

From Old Latin dingua which is a cognate (kindred) with Old English tunge, The change of d (in Old Latin dingua) to l (in Latin lingua) was probably due to dialectal influence (the so-called "Sabine l"). It was facilitated by a folk-etymological association with lingere, "to lick", the tongue having been conceived as "the licking organ".

—According to Dr. Ernest Klein in his
A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language
acutilingual (adjective), more acutilingual, most acutilingual
Referring to animals that have a sharply pointed tongue or mouth: In zoology, it is stated that certain bees are acutilingual.
alveololingual (adjective)
In phonetics, used to describe a consonant that is sounded with the tongue touching or close to the ridge behind the teeth of the upper jaw.
ambilingualism (s) (noun), ambilingualisms (pl)
A situation that exists when someone has virtually equal command of two languages: When Doris moved to Quebec, Canada, from France, her ambilingualism of French and English made it easy for her to communicate with the local citizens.
anthropological linguistics (s) (noun) (a plural form used as a singular)
A major branch of mankind in which language is studied in a sociocultural context with an emphasis on how language reflects the thought processes of particular cultures.
apex linguae (s) (noun)
The tip of the tongue: "The apex linguae is the pointed, rounded, tip of the tongue which is usually resting against the incisor teeth that are at the lower front part of the mouth."
audiolingual (adjective) (not comparable)
Pertaining to a language learning approach or method: Audiolingual learning involves the habit formation of repetitive drill, drill, and more drill.

Audiolingual learning started during World War II

The next "revolution" in terms of language teaching methodology coincided with World War II, when America became aware that it needed people to learn foreign languages very quickly as part of its overall military operations. The "Army Method" was suddenly developed to build communicative competence in translators through very intensive language courses focusing on aural-oral skills. This, in combination with some new ideas about language learning coming from the disciplines of descriptive linguistics and behavioral psychology, went on to become what is known as the Audiolingual Method (ALM).

This new method incorporated many of the features typical of the earlier Direct Method, but the disciplines mentioned above added the concepts of teaching "linguistic patterns" in combination with "habit-forming". This method was one of the first to have its roots "firmly grounded in linguistic and psychological theory" (Brown 1994:57), which apparently added to its credibility and probably had some influence in the popularity it enjoyed over a long period of time. It also had a major influence on the language teaching methods that were to follow, and can still be seen in major or minor manifestations of language teaching methodology even to this day.

The method gained popularity because it was considered successful

Another factor that accounted for the method's popularity was the "quick success" it achieved in leading learners towards communicative competence. Through extensive mimicry, memorization and "over-learning" of language patterns and forms, students and teachers were often able to see immediate results. This was both its strength and its failure in the long run, as critics started to point out that the method did not deliver in terms of producing long-term communicative abilities.

Just as with the Direct Method that preceded it, the overall goal of the Audiolingual Method was to create communicative competence in learners, however it was thought that the most effective way to do this was for students to "overlearn" the language being studied through extensive repetition and a variety of elaborate drills.

The idea was to project the linguistic patterns of the language (based on the studies of structural linguists) into the minds of the learners in a way that made responses automatic and "habitual". To this end it was held that the language "habits" of the first language would constantly interfere, and the only way to overcome ths problem was to facilitate the learning of a new set of "habits" appropriate linguistically to the language being studied.

—Compiled from excerpts in Techniques and Principles of Language Teaching
by Larsen-Freeman, Diane. (1986); Oxford University Press;
"Grammar Pedagogy in Secondary and Foreign Language Teaching,"
TESOL Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 3; Autumn; 1991.
bilingual (adjective) (not comparable)
1. Relating to the ability to speak two languages easily and naturally: Since Kate has been working with French and English customers, she has become an efficient bilingual business woman.
2. Descriptive of a text that is written, expressed, or conducted in two languages: Jerry is using a bilingual dictionary while he is learning German in his American school.
3. A reference to the use of two languages: A very good example of a bilingual nation is Canada, where the official means of communication are English and French.
Relating to speaking two language.
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bilingualism (s), bilingualisms (pl) (nouns)
1. The ability to speak two languages.
2. The habitual use of two languages colloquially.
bilingualist (s), bilingualists (pl) (nouns)
A person who speaks two languages.
bilingually (adverb)
1. A reference to the ability to speak two languages easily and naturally.
2. Characterized as that which is written, expressed, or conducted in two languages; such as, they speak bilingually (French and English) in Quebec, Canada.
bilingulate, bilingulated (adjectives)
Shaped like two tongues: "There are some plants that have bilingulated leaves."
bilinguous (adjective)
A reference to speaking two languages or having two tongues.
biolinguistics (s) (noun)
1. The study of the biological underpinnings of language; such as, the factors that enhance or retard language development and the neurophysiology of language disorders.
2. The study of language functions as related to or derived from biological characteristics of an organism.
brachiofaciolingual (adjective), more brachiofaciolingual, most brachiofaciolingual
Relating to or affecting the arm, face, and tongue.
brevilingual (adjective)
With a short tongue or having a short tongue.
Cross references of word families related directly, or indirectly, to: "talk, speak, speech; words, language; tongue, etc.": cit-; clam-; dic-; fa-; -farious; glosso-; glotto-; lalo-; locu-; logo-; loqu-; mythico-; -ology; ora-; -phasia; -phemia; phon-; phras-; Quotes: Language,Part 1; Quotes: Language, Part 2; Quotes: Language, Part 3; serm-; tongue; voc-.