Calendar Names of Days and Months in Different Languages

(a compilation of several languages)

The dates displayed in these pages are based on a compilation of the phases of time as expressed in several languages with a presentation of fascinating facts, fantasies, and fallacies that have merged as elements of time.

The equivalents in all of the following languages have been written with Roman/Latin fonts (letters), even in those situations when a language actually employs different letter forms. For example, such languages as Greek, Georgian, Russian (Cyrillic), Hebrew, and Arabic are transliterated into the Roman/Latin-type fonts.

Afghani Pushtoo or Pushtu, Eastern
Hasan wa huseyn
Gul shakara
Rumbey chor, Wrumbey chor
Dwayema chor
Dreyema chor
Thalorema chor
Do Hadai miasht, Bzerga miasht
Shawkadar, Do shawkadare miasht
Shawkadar, Do shawkadare miasht
Rozha, Do rozha miasht
Warukay achtar
Miyana miasht
Loy achtar
Afghani Pushtoo or Pushtu, Western
Hasan hyseyn
Sapara, thapara
Lumrey khor
Dwaheyma khor
Dreyma khor
Thalarema chor
Do hadai taali miasht
Barat, Barate miasht
Rozha, Do rozha miasht Kuchnay akhtar, Do kuchni akhtar
Loy akhtar

Since 1968 (1347 Shamsi), the Afghani solar calendar has been identical with the Iranian Solar calendar.

"Modern" Afghanis utilize three calendars: the Gregorian (for commercial uses), a variant of the lunar Hegira, and a variant of the Iranian Solar.

Just as in the Arabic lunar-Hegira calendar, the Afghani variation uses July 15, 622 A.D. as its epoch. It also has 12 months with the odd months (1-11) having 30 days and the even months (2-12) having 29 days. The last month has 29 days in a common year and 30 days in a leap year.

—From The Book of Calendars by Frank Parise, ed.;
Facts On File, Inc.; New York; 1982.
Albanian (Shqip) days
e hënë [mandi] (Monday)
e martë [tjuuzdi] (Tuesday)
e mërkurë [wenzdi] (Wednesday)
e enjte [thëërzdi] (Thursday)
e premte [frajdi] (Friday)
e shtunë [sŠtërdi] (Saturday)
e dielë (djelë) [sandi] (Sunday)

Hënë, or Hanë(e) is vernacular for “moon.”

Martë and Mërkure refer to Mars and Mercury, respectively.

Enjte is thought to have come from a local deity identified with Zeus.

Premte may mean "evening". If so, it may either mean: (1) "eve" or "vigil" and is equivalent to the church term "preparation" or (2) it is another name for "Venus", "Hesperus", or "evening star".

Since the other names are not church terms, #2 is most likely the meaning (according to F.H. Colson).

Dielë, or Dielli, is believed to be the vernacular for "sun".

—From The Week,
an Essay on the "Origin and Development of the Seven-Day Cycle"
by Francis H. Colso; Cambridge University Press;
Cambridge, England; 1926; pages 119-120.
Albanian (Shqip) months
janar/kallnor or kallnuer (January)
shkurt (February)
mars (March)
prill (April)
maj (May)
qershor (June)
korrik (July)
gusht (August)
shtator (September)
tetor (October)
nëntor (November)
dhjetor (December)
—From Mediterranean Europe Phrasebook
by Stephen Schwartz and Gjon Sinishta;
Lonely Planet Publications Pty Ltd.;
Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia; 1992.
Berlitz East European Phrase Book, Berlitz Publishing Company, Inc.;
Oxford, England; 1995.
Dictionary English-Turkish-Albanian by Rian Disci; Istanbul University;
Istanbul, Turkey; 1994.

The Albanian or Shqip Language

There are about four million speakers of Albanian, three million of which are in Albania, one and a half million in the former Yugoslavia, and some in Italy and Greece.

The Albanians refer to their language as shqip and their country as Shqipëria. Two major dialects are Tosk, spoken in the south, and Gheg, in the north.

Albanians started to use the Roman alphabet in 1908 and it contains many words which are not found in any other Indo-European language, although Latin, Greek, Turkish, and Slavic languages have been incorporated into it.

Albanian is a separate and independent branch of the Indo-European language. Its origin is not known and scholars could not prove its membership as a member of the Indo-European family of languages until 1854.

—From The Languages of the World
by Kenneth Katzner; Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.;
Guernsey, Channel Islands, UK; 1995.
Anglo-Saxon days
sunnandaeg, (Sunday)
monandaeg (Monday)
Tiwesdaeg (Tuesday)
Wodensdaeg (Wednesday)
Thursdaeg (Thursday)
Frigedaeg (Friday)
Saterndaeg (Saturday)

For some Old Scandinavians, the name for Saturday was Loverdag, "bath-night" or "washing-day" because the Danes were noted for their cleanliness, according to an old chronicler.

—From Clockwork Man by Lawrence Wright,
Elek Books Ltd.; London; 1968; page 43.
Anglo-Saxon months
Wulf-monath (January)
Sprout-kale (February)
Hlyd-monath (March)
Eostur-monath (April)
Thromilchi (May)
Litha (June)
Maed-monath (July)
Weod-monath or Scere-monath (August)
Harvest-monath (September)
Winterfylleth (October)
Blod-monath (November)
Heligh-monath (December)

Wulf-monath indicated the time of the year when hungry wolves came into the villages.

Sprout-kale was the time of the year when cabbages sprouted.

Hlyd-monath expressed the month when there were storms.

Eostur-monath commemorated the goddess of fertility.

Thromilchi supposedly was the month when cows could be milked three times a day.

Litha has a meaning which can not be determined with certainty.

Maed-monath (mead-month) was when meadows were in bloom.

Weod-monath (weed-month) or Scere-monath, was the month for shearing.

Harvest-monath is easily understood.

Winterfylleth, or the full moon, marked the beginning of winter.

Blod-monath (blood month) was when the cattle and other domestic animals were butchered.

Heligh-monath was "holy-month".

—From Clockwork Man by Lawrence Wright;
published by Elek Books Ltd.; London; 1968.
Arabic days
as sabt (Saturday)
al aHad (Sunday)
al eathayn (Monday)
athalathe (Tuesday)
al arbe'a' (Wednesday)
al khamis (Thursday)
al jum'a (Friday)
Arabic months
yænæyir (kænun æt-tæni)
[kanun ethani or yanayer] (January)
fibrayir (shabat)
[shobat or febrayer] (February)
mæris (azar) [a’thar or mares] (March)
abril (nisæn) [nisan or ibreel] (April)
mæyo (ayyar) [ayyar or mayu] (May)
yonyo (hozæyran)
[Huzayran or younyeh] (June)
yolyo (tæmmuz) [tammuz or yulyeh] (July)
agostos (æb) [ab or o’gustus] (August)
sibtæmbir (æylul)
[aylul or sebtember] (September)
oktobar (tishrin æl-æwwæl)
[tishreen al awwal or october] (October)
novæmbir (tishrin ættæni)
[tishreen athani or november] (November)
disæmbir (kænun æl-æwwæl)
[kanun al awwal or december] (December)

—From Berlitz Arabic for Travellers by the staff of Berlitz Guides;
Berlitz Publishing S.A.; Lausanne, Switzerland; 1989
(those shown above in parentheses).
and from
Spoken Arabic of the Arabian Gulf by “Associated companies,
branches and representatives throughout the world”;
Librairie du Liban; Beirut, Lebanon; 1981
[those shown above in the brackets].
Armenian (Eastern) months
hunva'r (January)
pheteorva'r (February)
mart (March)
apri'l (April)
mayi's (May)
huni's (June)
huli's (July)
ogosto's (August)
sephtembe'r (September)
hocktembe'r (October)
noyembe'r (November)
dektembe'r (December)
—From Armenian-English/English-Armenian Dictionary by Dilana Aroutunian
and Susanna Aroutunian; Hippocrene Books Inc.; New York; 1993.
Armenian days
y-ergushapt'i, yerkushaphti'; erkushabt'i (Monday)
y-erekshapti, yerekshabthi'; erek'shab'ti (Tuesday)
chorek-shapti, chorekshaphthi'; ch'orek'shabt'i (Wednesday)
hinqshapti, hingshapthi; hingshabt'i (Thursday)
urpha'th; urbat' (Friday)
shapha'th; shabat' (Saturday)
ckiracki'; kiraki (Sunday)

Azerbaijani days
bazar günü (Sunday)
bazar ertuhsi (Monday)
çuhrsuhnbuh axsaml (Tuesday)
çuhrsuhnbuh günü (Wednesday)
cümuh axsaml (Thursday)
cümuh günü (Friday)
suhnbuh (Saturday)

Azerbaijani months
yanvar (January)
fevral (February)
mart (March)
aprel (April)
may (May)
iyun (June)
iyul (July)
avgust (August)
sentyabr (September)
oktyabr (October)
dekabr (December)

New Year's Day starts on 22 March.

Aztec day names (20)

There are twenty named days contained in one month. Each day also names the years.

cipactli: crocodile
ehecatl: wind
calli: house or underworld
cuetzpallin: lizard
coatl: serpent or snake
miquiztli: death
mazatl: deer
tochtli: rabbit
atl: water
itzcuintli: dog
ozomatli: monkey
malinalli: herb: grass
acatl: reed
ocelotl: jaguar
quauhtli: eagle
cozcaquauhtli: vulture
ollin: movement
tecpatl: flint knife
quiauitl: rain
xochitl: flower
—From Chronology of the Ancient World by E.J. Bickerman;
Cornell University Press; Ithaca, New York; 1968.

Babylonian and (Jewish), Ancient months
duzu (tammuz)
abu (ab)
ululu (elul)
tashritu (tishri)
arasamnu (marheshvan)
kislimu (kislev)
tebetu (tebeth)
shabatu (shebat)
addaru (adar)
nisanu (nisan)
aiaru (iyyar)
simanu (sivan)
—From Chronology of the Ancient World by E.J. Bickerman;
Cornell University Press; Ithaca, New York; 1968.
Bantu-Botatwe dialect days
in-sondo, in sunda, n-sondo (Sunday)
my-sumbuluko, mu-simbuluko (Monday)
bwa bili, u bwa bili, bu ti bili (Tuesday)
bwa tatu, u bwa tatu, bu ti tatu (Wednesday)
bwa ne, buti banda (Thursday)
bwa sanu, u bwa sanu, bu ti musanu (Friday)
mu-jibelo, bu-tabula kamwi (Saturday)

Bantu-Botatwe dialect is thought to be the "most archaic of the Bantu languages".