gnatho-, gnath-, -gnatha, -gnathan, -gnath, -gnathia, -gnathic, -gnathous

(Greek: jaw)


The jaw is the name applied to the bones which contain the teeth.

The two upper jaw-bones, the maxillae, are firmly attached to the other bones of the face.

The lower jaw, the mandible, is shaped in a form similar to that of a horseshoe, and, after the first year of life, it consists of a single bone.

It forms a hinge-joint with the squamous part (thin, plate-like section) of the temporal bone, immediately in front of the ear.

Both the upper and the lower jaw-bones include deep sockets known as alveoli, which contain the roots of the teeth.

—Compiled from information located in
Black's Medical Dictionary, 41st edition;
Edited by Dr. Harvey Marcovitch; The Scarecrow Press, Inc.;
Lanham, Maryland and Oxford, England; 2005; page 385.
megagnathia
An enlargement or elongation of the jaw.
mesognathism
Having the jaws slightly projecting; between prognathous (jaws projecting beyond the upper part of the face) and orthognathous (front of the head, or the skull, nearly perpendicular, not retreating backwards above the jaws).
nematognath
An order of fish having barbels (slender tactile or touch organ) on the jaws which includes the catfish, or siluroids (American catfish and numerous related fresh-water species).
opisthognathism
1. Having receding or retreating jaws.
2. Having the mouth parts ventral (situated on or close to the abdomen) and posterior to the cranium (toward or situated at the back of the head).
orthognathia
A specialty dealing with the etiology (causes or origins of a disease or disorder) and the treatment of abnormal relationships between the bones of the jaws.
orthognathic
1. Relating to orthognathia.
2. Having a face without a projecting jaw.
orthognathic surgery
The surgical correction of deformities or malpositions of the jaw.
orthognathism
The characteristic of having non-projecting jaws.
orthognathous
1. Having the lower jaw correctly in line with the upper jaw.
2. Straight jaws which have the front of the head, or the skull, nearly perpendicular, not retreating backwards above the jaws.
orthognathy
The quality or state of not having the lower parts of the face projecting.
oxygnathous
Having more or less sharp jaws.
pachygnathous
Characterized by a thick or large jaw.
palatognathous
Having a cleft palate.
perignathic
Situated around the jaw or jaws.
pharyngognathi
A division of fish in which the lower pharyngeal bones (cavity at the back of the mouth) are united.