geo-, ge- +

(Greek: earth, land, soil; world; Gaia (Greek), Gaea (Latin), "earth goddess")

geographical cycle, geographic cycle, geomorphical cycle, geomorphic cycle, cycle of erosion (s) (noun) (no pl)
Theory was developed or formulated by the American geographer and geomorphologist, William Morris Davis (between 1884 and 1934) who modeled the formation of river-eroded landscapes.

This theory suggests that landscapes go through three stages of development (youth, maturity, and old age) and indicates that the rejuvenation of landscapes arises from tectonic uplift of the land.

In the "youthful stage", under the influence of tectonic uplifts, there appears a mountain relief, which is dissected through erosion (the washing out of rocks by rivers) into deep, narrow valleys and sharp-peaked ridges.

With the dissection by streams, the area would reach maturity and, ultimately, would be reduced to an old-age surface called a peneplain (gently undulating, almost featureless plain), with an elevation near sea level.

The model developed by Davis, though important in historical context, is currently considered only a first approximation.

Developments in the sciences of geology and geomorphology, especially the plate tectonics revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, have confirmed the preliminary nature of the model.

geographical determination, geographical determinism (s) (noun) (no pl)
A theory stating that human culture and activity can be explained by the geographical circumstances or conditions in which they are found: An example of geographical determinism can be the environment in a desert which produces a nomadic culture because desert terrain makes it easier for movement and the lack of consistent rainfall stimulates such movement.

geographical distribution of resources, geographic distribution of resources (pl) (noun)
The physical character and distribution of natural resources on the face of the Earth: The fundamental differences between land and ocean, latitudinal differences in insulation, spatial variations in receipts of precipitation, and patterns of geological composition and deformation of the Earth's crust together provide the basis for the geographical distribution of resources which distinguish definite geographical patterns of resource availability throughout the world.

geographical information system, geographic information system, GIS (s) (noun); geographical information systems; geographic information systems (pl)
1. A computer system specialized for the storage, manipulation, and presentation of geographical information: A geographical information system is used for topography, political subdivisions, geology, vegetation, flood plains, etc.
2. A computerized system which relates and displays data collected from a geographic entityto in the form of a map: A geographical information system overlays existing data with new information and displays it in color on a computer screen. It is used primarily to conduct analyses and make decisions related to geology, ecology, land use, demographics, transportation, and other domains, most of which relate to the human use of the physical environment.

Through this process of geocoding, the geographic data from a database is converted into images in the form of maps.

geographical mile (s) (noun), geographical miles (pl)
A former name for a nautical mile (sea mile) or a unit of length used in sea and air navigation: A geographical mile is based on the length of one minute of arc of a great circle, especially an international and U.S. unit equal to 1,852 meters (about 6,076 feet).

A geographical mile is a British unit of length equivalent to 1,853.18 meters (6,082 feet) , which was replaced by the international nautical mile in 1970.

It is also a unit of length in the US Customary System, used in air and sea navigation and equal to 6,076 feet or 2,025 yards (1,852 meters).

geographical plot (s) (noun), geographical plots (pl)
A chart of the movements of vessels, aircraft, or spacecraft in comparison to the surface of the Earth: Positions on a geographical plot are displayed in terms of actual geographical position, as opposed to a relative plot, for example. The geographical plot show the successive positions of a craft relative to a reference point, which is usually in motion.
geographical position (s) (noun), geographical positions (pl)
That point on the Earth or a location on the surface of a planet at which a given celestial body is in the zenith at a specified time; geographical point: Any position on the surface of the Earth, or geographical position is defined by means of its geographical coordinates, either astronomical or geodetic, or expressed in terms of latitude and longitude, either geodetic or astronomical.
geographical projection (s) (noun), geographical projections (pl)
A representation of the globe constructed on a plane with lines representative of and corresponding to the meridians and parallels of the curved surface of the Earth: A geographical projection involves the display of the spherical coordinates on a grid, and the equirectangular map used for this is termed the geographical projection.
geographical range, geographic range (s) (noun); geographical ranges; geographic ranges (pl)
1. A spatial distribution of a species (group of interbreeding organisms that do not ordinarily breed with members of other groups): The geographic range of rattlesnakes, for example, is only located in the Western Hemisphere, in North and South America.

Arizona provides a geographic range for 13 different species of rattlesnakes.
2. The total area occupied by a population: Mr Straight asked the students to find out what groups of lifeforms would apply to the definition of geographic range.
3. The extreme distance at which an object or light can be seen when limited only by the curvature of the Earth and the heights of the object and the observer: The geographic range of light is dependent on the height of the light itself, the height of the observer's eyes, and the refraction of the atmosphere.

geographical search, geographic search (s) (noun); geographical searches; geographic searches (pl)
An online inquiry or quest for information regarding geographical maps from various cmtributions: A geographical search is a procedure in which search areas are assigned by geographical areas or sectors.

A geographical search can also be described as an orderly arrangement of lines in which an area is defined in relation to one or more geographical points on the Earth.

geographical unit, geographic unit (s) (noun); geographical units; geographic units (pl)
An area based primarily on hydrologic boundaries adjusted as needed using a specified set of criteria to accommodate the inventory and analysis of natural resources: A geographic unit can vary in scale depending on the criteria used, the level of inventory and analysis needed, and the problems perceived. In all cases, geographic units incorporate both groundwater and surface water.

geographically (adverb) (not comparable)
Characterized by how something is topographically located: Jane wanted to know if the park was geographically close to the hotel where she was staying.

The scientific study of the surface of the Earth includes the topographical features of geographically important regions of the Earth.

geography (s) (noun), geographies (pl)
1. The study of the natural features of the Earth's surface: Geography comprises topography, climate, soil, vegetation, etc. and man's responses to them.
2. The physical features of a region, area, or place: Geography usually refers to surface features like rivers and mountains.
3. The science that deals with the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humans: Mr. Smart gave his students the assignment of reading about the geography of their region in their textbooks.
4. The scientific study of the Earth, including its composition, structure, physical properties, and history: Since Jack was very interested in geography, he decided to study it and learn all about the historical aspects and formation of the Earth.

Geology is commonly divided into subdisciplines concerned with the chemical makeup of the Earth, including:

  • The study of minerals (mineralogy) and rocks (petrology).
  • The structure of the Earth (structural geology) and volcanic phenomena (volcanology).
  • Landforms and the processes that produce them (geomorphology and glaciology).
  • The geologic history, including the study of fossils (paleontology).
  • The development of sedimentary strata (stratigraphy).
  • The evolution of planetary bodies and their satellites (astrogeology).
  • Economic geology and its various branches; such as, mining geology and petroleum geology.
  • Also, some major fields closely allied to geology are geodesy, geophysics, and geochemistry.
geography of energy (s) (noun) (no pl)
The study of energy development, transportation, markets: The students were asked to name the different kinds of energy and find out the use of energy patterns from a geographical perspective for their report on the geography of energy.
geohydrology (s) (noun) (no pl)
The scientific study of subsurface water; hydrogeology: Geohydrology especially pertains to the study of the geologic settings of underground water.

Geohydrology is the branch of geology that studies the movement of subsurface water through rocks and the effect of moving water on rocks, including their erosion.

The term geohydrology is often used interchangeably with "hydrogeology". Some make the minor distinction between hydrologists or engineers who are applying themselves to geology (geohydrology), and geologists applying themselves to "hydrology" (hydrogeology).

Available for further enlightenment: the Earth, Words from the Myths.

Cross references of word families related directly, or indirectly, to: "land, ground, fields, soil, dirt, mud, clay, earth (world)": agra-; agrest-; agri-; agro-; argill-; choro-; chthon-; epeiro-; glob-; lut-; myso-; pedo-; pel-; rhyp-; soil-; sord-; terr-.