electro-, electr-, electri-

(Greek > Latin: electric, electricity; from amber, resembling amber, generated from amber which when rubbed vigorously [as by friction], produced the effect of static electricity)

Electronics in our lives consists of numerous tools

Equipment which we use everyday relies on electronics to function including calculators, car controls, cameras, washing machines, medical scanners, mobile telephones, radar systems, computers; as well as many other applications or devices which are listed in this unit.

piezoelectric vibrator
A sample of piezoelectric material that is attached to electrodes and mounted near some other vibrating element; the piezoelectric sample is used to excite resonant frequencies in the second material.
piezoelectrical, piezoelectrically
A reference to the generation of electricity or of electric polarity in dielectric crystals which are subjected to mechanical stress, or the generation of stress in such crystals subjected to an applied voltage.
piezoelectricity (pigh ee" zoh i lek TRIS i tee), PZT
1. The ability of crystals to generate a voltage in response to applied mechanical stress.
2. The generation of electricity or of electric polarity in dielectric crystals subjected to mechanical stress, or the generation of stress in such crystals subjected to an applied voltage.
3. Electric currents generated by pressure upon certain crystals; such as, quartz, mica, and calcite.
4. Etymology, Piezoelectricity is derived from Greek piezein, "to squeeze" or "to press".
A field that aims to develop self-powered devices that do not require replaceable power supplies; such as, batteries.

A certain type of piezoelectric material can covert energy at a 100 percent increase when manufactured at a very small size; in this case, about 21 nanometers in thickness.

Many high-tech devices contain components that are measured in nanometers, which is a microscopic unit of measurement representing one-billionth of a meter; a human hair is about 100,000 nanometers wide.

Piezoelectrics are materials; usually, crystals or ceramics, which generate voltage when a form of mechanical stress is applied. They demonstrate a change in their physical properties when an electric field is applied.

Discovered by French scientists in the 1880's, piezoelectrics are not a new concept. They were first used in sonar devices during World War I.

Today they can be found in microphones and quartz watches. Cigarette lighters in automobiles also contain piezoelectrics. Pressing down the lighter button causes impact on a piezoelectric crystal which then produces enough voltage to create a spark and ignite the gas.

While advances in piezoelectrics applications are progressing, piezoelectric work at the nanoscale is a newer endeavor with different and complex aspects to consider; especially, because the size of a hair is much more pliable and susceptible to change from its surrounding environment than larger kinds of materials.

More research is being done to accomplish a self-powering cell phone that never needs to be charged because it will be able to convert sound waves produced by the user into the energy it needs to keep running without batteries.

—Compiled from information discovered in
Physorg.com; science; physics, tech, and nano news; "Self-powered devices possible,
researcher Tahir Cagin says", who is a professor in the Artie McFerrin Department
of Chemical Engineering at Texas A&M University; December 1, 2008.
piezopolymer, piezoelectric polymer
A polymer film that can convert heat and pressure into electricity.
point electrode
1. An electrode with an insulating handle at one end and a small metallic terminal at the other end for use in applying static sparks.
2. An electrode with a small metallic point to obtain a high electric current density in a small area.
polymer membrane electrode
An electrode in which the sensing membrane is an organic polymer containing a hydrophobic ion-exchange neutral carrier (ionophore).
pore electrode
An electrode whose contact surface, through which the current passes to the tissue being stimulated, is porous.
positive electricity
An electric charge caused by the loss of negatively charged electrons.
positive electrode
An anode; the pole opposite to a cathode (negative) electrode.

The positive pole of a galvanic battery or the electrode connected with it.

An electrode toward which negatively charged ions migrate.

positive electropism
The movement of an organism or cell toward an electrical stimulus.
positive electrotropism
The movement of an organism or cell toward an electrical stimulus.
positron, antielectron
1. An elementary particle having the same mass and magnitude of charge as an electron but exhibiting a positive charge; a positive electron.
2. A positively charged particle of the same mass and magnititude of charge as an electron; a positive electron.
power-transmission line (s) (noun), power-transmission lines (pl)
An electric main that provides large amounts of power at a high voltage to remote locations.
precordial electrocardiography
The recording of electrical activity from electrodes placed on the anterior chest wall (at the front of the body).

The references or sources of information for compiling the words and definitions in this unit are listed at this Electronic Bibliography page or specific sources are indicated when they are appropriate.

A cross reference of word units that are related, directly and/or indirectly, with "electricity": galvano-; hodo-; ion-; piezo-; -tron; volt; biomechatronics, info; mechatronics, info.