electro-, electr-, electri-

(Greek > Latin: electric, electricity; from amber, resembling amber, generated from amber which when rubbed vigorously [as by friction], produced the effect of static electricity)

Electronics in our lives consists of numerous tools

Equipment which we use everyday relies on electronics to function including calculators, car controls, cameras, washing machines, medical scanners, mobile telephones, radar systems, computers; as well as many other applications or devices which are listed in this unit.

electrostatic memory tube (s) (noun), electrostatic memory tubes (pl)
An electron tube in which information is stored with electric charges.
electrostatic memory, electrostatic storage (s) (noun); electrostatic memories, electrostatic storages (pl)
1. An instrument in which information is stored as electrostatic charges on a dielectric surface (insulating material or a very poor conductor of electric current, but an efficient supporter of electrostatic fields).
2. A storage in which information is kept as the presence or absence of electrostatic charges at specific spot locations, generally on the screen of a special type of cathode-ray tube known as a storage tube.
3. The storage of changeable information in the form of charged or uncharged areas usually on the screen of a cathode-ray tube.
4. A memory which stores information in the form of the presence or absence of electrostatic charges at specific locations; such as, on the screen of a special cathode-ray tube known as a storage tube or cells of dynamic random-access memories.
electrostatic meter
A meter with a movement consisting of fixed and movable metal plates, interleaved to form a capacitor.

The rotation of the movable plates is proportional to the DC or AC voltage applied across the capacitor.

electrostatic microphone, capacitor microphone, condenser microphone
1. A microphone consisting essentially of a flexible metal diaphragm and a rigid metal plate that together form a two-plate air capacitor.

Sound waves set the diaphragm in vibration, producing capacitance variations that are converted into audio-frequency signals by a suitable amplifier circuit.

2. A microphone design where a condenser (the original name for a capacitor) is created by stretching a thin diaphragm in front of a metal disc (the back plate).

By positioning the two surfaces very close together an electrical capacitor is created so the capacitance varies as a function of sound pressure.

Any change in sound pressure causes the diaphragm to move, which changes the distance between the two surfaces.

Electrostatic microphones, unlike other types, require a battery or other voltage source.

electrostatic octupole lens
A tool for controlling beams of electrons or other charged particles, consisting of eight electrodes arranged in a circular pattern with alternating polarities.

It is commonly used to correct a condition that causes a blurring and loss of clearness in the images produced by lenses or mirrors of quadrupole lens systems.

electrostatic painting, electrostatic spraying
1.A technique of spraying in which the material being sprayed is given a high electrical charge, while the test piece is grounded.
2. A procedure used in painting which uses the particle-attracting property of electrostatic charges.

The direct current of about 100,000 volts is applied to a grid of wires through which the paint is sprayed to charge each particle and the metal objects to be sprayed are connected to the opposite terminal of the high-voltage circuit, so they attract the particles of paint.

electrostatic photomultiplier
An electrical device designed for the detection of weak electromagnetic radiation, usually light, by amplifying the energy of the photons that strike it into stronger electrical signals whose electrostatic fields cause the electron stream to be reflected off each dynode in turn.

A dynode is an electrode whose primary function is the secondary emission of electrons.

electrostatic precipitation (s) (noun), electrostatic precipitations (pl)
The removal of dust, smoke, or other finely divided particles from the air by charging the particles with an electric field so they are attracted to oppositely charged collector electrodes and collected by those polarized electrodes.
electrostatic precipitator
1. An instrument which removes small foreign particles; such as, dust and pollen, from the air by electrically charging and then collecting the particles on a plate that is oppositely charged.
2. A tool which removes dust or other finely divided particles from a gas by charging the particles inductively with an electric field, then attracting them to highly charged collector plates.
3. A device that removes small foreign particles from the air; such as, ash, dust, and acid by electrically charging and then collecting the particles on a plate that is oppositely charged.

Used to filter out pollutants and to retrieve valuable materials, from utility and industrial processes, before they reach the atmosphere.

electrostatic printer, electrostatic plotter, electrostatic reprography
1. A process for printing or copying in which electrostatic charges are used to form the image in powder or ink directly on to the surface to be printed instead of with ink or pressure.

The best known process of electrostatic printing is known as xerography.

2. A procedure in which a positive electrostatic charge is given to a paper on which an image is projected.

A bright light reverses the charge of the non-image area so that the negatively charged powdered ink sticks firmly only to the positive image area.

Established by the Xerox Corporation, it is about the most common dry photocopying process in use today.

3. A plotter or computer output device that draws graphs and other pictorial images on paper which uses an electrostatic method of printing.

Liquid toner models use a positively charged toner that is attracted to paper which is negatively charged by passing by a line of electrodes (tiny wires or nibs).

Models print in black and white or color, and some handle paper up to six feet wide.

Newer electrostatic plotters are really large-format laser printers and focus light onto a charged drum using lasers or LEDs (light-emitting diodes) which is a semiconductor that emits light when a current passes through it.

electrostatic process
1. A reproduction method in which image formation depends on electrical rather than chemical changes induced by light.
2. A non-chemical, non-impact imaging process in which a light source, corresponding to the image to be formed, discharges a charged dielectric photoconductive surface to form an inactive image.

This surface, a photoconductor, containing the unseen image is then dusted with dielectric toner powder which sticks to the charged areas, producing a visible image.

electrostatic propulsion
The propulsion of spacecraft or other vehicles by employing electric fields to accelerate charged particles in a desired direction.
electrostatic quadrupole lens
A tool for focusing beams of electrons or other charged particles, consisting of four electrodes arranged in a circular pattern with alternating polarities.
electrostatic radius
The nuclear radius as determined from an analysis of nuclear binding energies; especially, of mirror nuclides or species of atoms characterized by the number of protons, number of neutrons, and energy content in the nucleus.
electrostatic recording
Recording with a procedure utilizing a signal-controlled electrostatic field.

The references or sources of information for compiling the words and definitions in this unit are listed at this Electronic Bibliography page or specific sources are indicated when they are appropriate.

A cross reference of word units that are related, directly and/or indirectly, with "electricity": galvano-; hodo-; ion-; piezo-; -tron; volt; biomechatronics, info; mechatronics, info.