electro-, electr-, electri-

(Greek > Latin: electric, electricity; from amber, resembling amber, generated from amber which when rubbed vigorously [as by friction], produced the effect of static electricity)

Electronics in our lives consists of numerous tools

Equipment which we use everyday relies on electronics to function including calculators, car controls, cameras, washing machines, medical scanners, mobile telephones, radar systems, computers; as well as many other applications or devices which are listed in this unit.

electroradiology, radiotherapy
A former term for medical radiography and radiotherapy.
1. An electroscope (device for detecting the presence of an electrostatic charge) of any of several designs suitable for the measurement of ionizing radiation arriving through the air.

Typically a microscopic, electrically conducting fiber (for example, silvered quartz) is suspended in a chamber, close to and connected with an insulated wire support where an electrostatic charge is applied, and similar charges deflect the fiber away from the support, the movement being monitored with a microscope and scale.

As the radiation of interest ionizes the enclosed gases, a slow discharge occurs, and the fiber retreats toward its resting position, the rate of movement indicating the intensity of the radiation.

2. A modified electroscope designed for the differentiation of radiant energy or energy contained in light rays or any other form of radiation; such as, X-rays or gamma rays.

An electroscope is an instrument for detecting the presence of electricity, or changes in the electric state of bodies, or the species of electricity present, by using pith balls, etc.

1. Reduction which occurs at the cathode of an electrolytic cell.
2. The process in which electrons are added to a substance near the cathode of an electrolytic cell.
electrorefining, electrolytic refining
1. The removal of impurities from a metal by electrolysis.
2. A petroleum refining procedure to aid in separating chemical treating agents from the hydrocarbon phase by use of an electrostatic field.
3. In chemical engineering, a petroleum refinery process for light hydrocarbon streams in which an electrostatic field is used to assist in separation of chemical treating agents (acid, caustic, doctor) from the hydrocarbon phase.
4. A method of metal refining in which the metal is dissolved anodically (positive electrode) and plated at the cathode (negative electrode) of an electrolytic cell.
5. The process of dissolving a metal from an impure anode by means of electrodeposition and redepositing it in a purer state on a cathode.
electroreflectance, electro-reflectance, ER
1. The study of reflection spectra produced by electromodulation of a sample.
2. Electromodulation in which reflection spectra are studied.

Electromodulation consists of modulation spectroscopy in which changes in transmission or reflection spectra induced by a perturbing electric field are measured.

electroresistive effect
1. A change in resistance against an electrical current which parallels a change in voltage applied to the electric current.
2. The change in the resistivity of certain materials with changes in applied voltage.
electroretinogram, ERG
1. A record of the action currents of the retina of the eyes produced by visual or light stimuli.
2. A graphic record of the electrical activity of the retina or the electric discharges of the eye retina.
3. A record of the electric variations of the retina when stimulated by lights which is made by placing one electrode over the cornea, and the other electrode over some indifferent region.
4. A recording of the electrical potentials evoked in the retina and ocular fundus (bottom of a hollow organ) in response to a visual stimulus.
An instrument for measuring the electrical response of the human retina to light stimulation.
electroretinography, ERG
1. The recording and interpretation of the voltage generated by the retina of the eye.

An electrode placed on a plastic contact lens is used to pick up voltage from the surface of the eyeball.

2. A test in which the electrical potentials generated by the retina of the eye are measured when the retina is stimulated by light.

The instrument used to do such electroretinography is known as an electroretinograph and the resultant recording is called an electroretinogram.

In an ERG, an electrode is placed on the cornea at the front of the eye. The electrode measures the electrical response of the rods and cones, and the visual cells in the retina at the back of the eye.

An ERG (electroretinograph) may be useful in the evaluation of hereditary and acquired disorders of the retina.

A normal ERG shows the appropriate responses with increased light intensity. An abnormal ERG is found in conditions; such as, arteriosclerosis of the retina, detachment of the retina, and temporal arteritis with eye involvement.

A reference to the changes in flow properties that occur in certain fluids exposed to electric fields.
electrorheological fluid
1. A colloidal suspension of finely divided particles in a carrier liquid, usually an insulating oil, is which rheological properties are changed through an increase in resistance when an electric field is applied.
2. A class of liquid which stiffens into a semi-solid when subjected to a electric field.

Electrorheological fluids are commonly colloidal suspensions, and their stiffening under an electric field is reversible.

Under the electric field, electrorheological fluids form fibrous structures that are parallel to the applied field and can increase in viscosity by a factor of up to 105.

Lithium polymethacrylate is an example of an electrorheological fluid.

1. A specialist in the branch of physics concerned with the flow and change of shape of matter that is determined by electrical fields.
2. Someone who studies the flow of fluids under the influence of electric fields.
1. The study of the flow of fluids under the influence of electric fields.
2. The way in which fluid flow is influenced by an electric field.
A graphic record or curve showing the action potential of the salivary glands, obtained with an electrically operated instrument.
1. Division of tissues with an electrocautery knife.
2. The cutting of tissues with an electrocautery knife (apparatus for surgical dissection and hemostasis, using heat generated by a high-voltage, high-frequency alternating current passed through an electrode) which refers to electrosurgical methods.

The references or sources of information for compiling the words and definitions in this unit are listed at this Electronic Bibliography page or specific sources are indicated when they are appropriate.

A cross reference of word units that are related, directly and/or indirectly, with "electricity": galvano-; hodo-; ion-; piezo-; -tron; volt; biomechatronics, info; mechatronics, info.