electro-, electr-, electri-

(Greek > Latin: electric, electricity; from amber, resembling amber, generated from amber which when rubbed vigorously [as by friction], produced the effect of static electricity)

Electronics in our lives consists of numerous tools

Equipment which we use everyday relies on electronics to function including calculators, car controls, cameras, washing machines, medical scanners, mobile telephones, radar systems, computers; as well as many other applications or devices which are listed in this unit.

electrophoresis scanner
An instrument for reading bands on paper strips or gel, for the purpose of measuring particle movements because of electrophoresis.
electrophoresis, cataphoresis
1. The migration of charged colloidal particles or molecules through a solution under the influence of an applied electric field usually provided by immersed electrodes.
2. A method of separating substances, especially proteins, and analyzing molecular structure based on the rate of movement of each component in a colloidal suspension while under the influence of an electric field.

Electrophoretic methods are useful in the analysis of protein mixtures because protein particles move with different velocities depending principally on the number of charges carried by the particles.

3. The movement of charged suspended particles through a liquid medium in response to changes in an electric field.

Charged particles of a given substance migrate in a predictable direction and at a characteristic speed.

The pattern of migration can be recorded in bands on an electrophoretogram.

This technique is extensively used to separate and to identify serum proteins and other substances.

Referring to or relating to electrophoresis, an electrochemical process in which colloidal particles or macromolecules with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
electrophoretic coating
1. A surface coating on a metal deposited by electric discharge of particles from a colloidal solution.
2. A term for a broad range of industrial processes including colloidal particles suspended in a liquid medium that migrate under the influence of an electric field (electrophoresis) and which are deposited onto an electrode.

All colloidal particles that can be used to form stable suspensions and which can carry a charge, can be used in electrophoretic deposition. This includes materials such as polymers, pigments, dyes, ceramics and metals.

electrophoretic display
1. A display that forms visible images by rearranging charged pigment particles using an applied electric field.
2. A liquid crystal display in which a light-absorbing dye has been added to the liquid to improve both color and luminance contrast.

Individual electrically charged dye particles move when an electric field is applied.

3. A reflective display which offers a wide choice of colors and has a short-to-medium-term memory which consumes no power.

The heart of the display is a suspension of charge pigment particles in a liquid of another color.

The suspension, a layer typically 50 micrometers thick, is sandwiched between a pair of electrodes, one of which is transparent.

When direct current of the right polarity is applied to the electrodes, the particles are pulled toward the transparent electrode thus displacing the contrasting liquid and showing their own coloration.

electrophoretic effect
1. The tendency of an applied electromotive force to move an ionic atmosphere in a direction opposite to that of the motion of the central ion, creating a counter-current effect which reduces the ion's velocity.
2. A retarding effect on the characteristic motion of an ion in an electrolytic solution subjected to a potential gradient, that results from a motion in the opposite direction by the ion atmosphere.
electrophoretic mobility (s) (noun), electrophoretic mobilities (pl)
1. The tendency of cells or compounds in a solution to move in an electric field toward an positive or negative electrode.
2. A characteristic of living cells in suspension (a dispersion of fine solid or liquid particles in a fluid) and biological compounds (proteins) in a solution to travel in an electric field to the positive or negative electrode, because of the charge on these substances.
electrophoretic variants
1. Proteins which can be divided into distinct electrophoretic components because of the variations in their mobilities.
2. Physical and biochemical characteristics of an organism as determined by the interaction of its genetic constitution and the environment of the different proteins which are separable into distinct electrophoretic components because of the differences in mobilities.

One example is erythrocyte acid phosphatase.

The term erythrocyte refers to a blood cell that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues; while, the term phosphatase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis and synthesis of phosphoric acid esters (organic compounds that can react with water to produce an alcohol and an organic or inorganic acid) and the transfer of phosphate groups from phosphoric acid to other compounds.

electrophoretic velocity
1. The rate at which charged particles move in a solution under the influence of an electric field.
2. The velocity of a charged particle during electrophoresis.

It is normally proportional to an electric field of strength.

1. An early type of static-electricity generator or an apparatus that produces electric charges from the friction between a disk and a metal plate.
2. A generator which produces small amounts of static electricity by induction.
3. An instrument used to produce electric charges by induction.

It consists of a hard-rubber disk, that is negatively charged by rubbing with fur, and a metal plate, held by an insulating handle, which is placed on the disk.

The plate is then touched with a grounded conductor, so that the negative charge is removed and the plate has a net positive charge.

An image formed by means of an electrostatic copying system or electrophotography.
A reference to the printing technique used in copy machines, laser and LED printers.

It uses electrostatic charges, dry ink (toner) and light to produce images on paper.

electrophotographic process
The process in which images are formed by various electrical and photographic means.

Examples are processes employing selenium-coated drums or zinc-oxide-coated paper.

1. Any form of photography that uses electricity to transfer an image onto paper; such as, in laser printing and photocopying.
2. A kind of photography using electric rather than chemical processes to transfer an image onto paper, as in xerography.
3. An electrostatic image-forming process in which light, X-rays, or gamma rays form an electrostatic image on a photoconductive, insulating medium.

The charged image areas attract and hold a fine powder called a toner, and the powder image is then transferred to paper or fused there by heat.

Electrophotography now includes both xerography and xeroradiography.

electrophotoluminescence (s) (noun), electrophotoluminescences (pl)
The emission or radiation of lucidity resulting from the application of an electric field on to a phosphor which is activated by other procedures: In the room that did not have windows, the student used electrophotoluminescence to provide brightness without overheating the small space.

The references or sources of information for compiling the words and definitions in this unit are listed at this Electronic Bibliography page or specific sources are indicated when they are appropriate.

A cross reference of word units that are related, directly and/or indirectly, with "electricity": galvano-; hodo-; ion-; piezo-; -tron; volt; biomechatronics, info; mechatronics, info.