electro-, electr-, electri-

(Greek > Latin: electric, electricity; from amber, resembling amber, generated from amber which when rubbed vigorously [as by friction], produced the effect of static electricity)

Electronics in our lives consists of numerous tools

Equipment which we use everyday relies on electronics to function including calculators, car controls, cameras, washing machines, medical scanners, mobile telephones, radar systems, computers; as well as many other applications or devices which are listed in this unit.

electronic spreadsheet
1. A type of software that arranges data in ledger-like rows and columns and performs user-specified computations expressed as constraints between rows and columns of data.
2. A type of software for microcomputers that offers the user a visual display of a simulated worksheet and the means of using it for financial plans, budgets, etc.
3. A type of computer software for performing mathematical computations of numbers arranged in rows and columns, in which the numbers can depend on the values in other rows and columns, allowing large numbers of calculations to be carried out simultaneously.
electronic state
A physical state of electrons of a system, as specified, for example, by a Schrödinger-Pauli wave function of the positions and spin orientations of all the electrons.

The Schrödinger wave function is a function of the coordinates of the particles of a system and of time which is a solution of the Schrödinger equation and which determines the average result of every conceivable experiment on the system.

electronic stethoscope
1. A stethoscope designed and equipped to detect and to amplify body sounds.
2. An electronic amplifier of sounds within a body.

Its selective controls permit a tuning for low heart tones or high pulmonary tones. It has an auxiliary output for recording or viewing audio patterns.

electronic stimulator
A device for applying electronic pulses or signals to activate muscles, or to identify nerves, or for muscular therapy, etc. in the body.
electronic structure (s) (noun), electronic structures (pl)
1. The distribution of electrons in the material and the energies related to changes in this distribution.
2. An arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or solid, specified by their wave functions, energy levels, or quantum numbers.
3. The arrangement of the electron orbitals in an atom or molecule, often described in terms of he quantum numbers, energy levels, or wave-functions.
electronic support measures
A division of electronic military warfare involving actions taken to search for, intercept, locate, record, and analyze radiated electromagnetic energy for the purpose of exploiting such radiations in support of military operations.
electronic surge arrester
1. An apparatus used to switch to ground high-energy surges, reducing transient energy to a level safe for secondary protectors; for example, silicon rectifiers (electrical devices that have a higher conductance for current flowing in one direction than for current flowing in the opposite direction), Zener diodes (types of diodes that permit electric current not only in the forward direction like a normal diode, but also in the reverse direction), etc.

A surge arrester is a protective device designed primarily for the connection between a conductor of an electrical system and ground to limit the magnitude of transient overvoltages on equipment. A lightning arrester is really a voltage-surge arrester.

electronic surveillance (s) (noun), electronic surveillances (pl)
The gathering of information by the surreptitious (secret) use of electronic devices; such as, cameras placed in train stations or in banks, etc. in order to record criminal activities or espionage: More cities around the world are using electronic surveillances in order to gather evidence of a crime or to accumulate intelligence about suspected criminal activities.

Corporations use electronic surveillance to maintain the security of their buildings and grounds.

Electronic surveillance permeates almost every aspect of life in the United States; for example, in the public sector, the president, Congress, judiciary, military, and law enforcement all use some form of this technology.

In the private sector, business competitors, convenience stores, shopping centers, apartment buildings, parking facilities, hospitals, banks, employers, and even spouses have utilized various methods of electronic surveillances.

    Electronic eavesdropping or electronic surveillances have several objectives:

  • Improvement of security for people and property.
  • Detection or prevention of criminal, wrongful, or illegal activities.
  • The interception, protection, or the obtaining of valuable, useful, scandalous, or embarrassing information about a person or numerous people.
electronic switch
1. A circuit element that causes a start (on) and stop (off) or a switching action electronically, usually at high speeds.
2. An electronic circuit used to perform the function of a high-speed switch.

Applications include switching a cathode-ray oscilloscope back and forth between two inputs at such high speeds that both input waveforms appear simultaneously on the screen.

3. With an X-ray machine, the on-off switch that controls the input of electricity to the X-ray machine.
electronic switching, electronic switching system, ESS
1. An automatic system of switching electric circuits using semiconductor devices; such as, transistor combinational circuits, semiconductor diode matrices, and integrated circuits, to perform the selection and switching in telephone circuitry.
2. A telephone switching system which uses a computer with a storage-containing program switching logic, whose output actuates switches that set up telephone connections which perform most telephone central office switching functions automatically.

Electronic switching systems permit custom-calling services; such as, speed dialing, call transfer, and three-way calling.

3. The use of electronic circuits to perform the functions of a high-speed switch.
electronic tablet, digitizing pad, digitizing tablet, data tablet, digitizer
1. A data-entry device consisting of stylus, writing surface, and circuitry that produces a pair of digital coordinate values corresponding continuously to the position of the stylus upon the surface.
2. A direct input device with a special pen or cross-hairs with which the user traces the image to be digitized.

The coordinates at selected points are automatically recorded.

electronic thermal conductivity
The part of the thermal conductivity resulting from the transfer of thermal energy by means of electrons and holes (mobile vacancies that act like positive electronic charges with positive masses).
electronic thermometer
1. A battery-powered thermometer that registers temperature with electronic procedures with a heat-sensitive metal tip that is placed in the mouth and a computer chip electronically reads and displays the temperature in digital format.
2. A thermometer that uses a sensor, usually a thermistor, which is placed on or near an object which is being measured.
3. An instrument which is used to measure a temperature that operates with the action of an electronic sensor which is positioned next to the substance being measured.
electronic timer
1. A synchronizing, pulse generator, modulator, or keyer which originates a series of continuous control pulses at an unvarying repetition rate known as the pulse-recurrence frequency.
2. A timer using electronic circuits, either tube or transistor type, to control a time period, in place of a motor or other processes.
3. A timer which has an electronic circuit to operate a relay at a predetermined interval of time after the circuit is energized, as in timing exposures for a photographic printer or in controlling an electronic generator.
electronic tonometer
1. An instrument that measures pressure in a body part; such as, the blood vessels, or the eyeball as a test for glaucoma.
2. An electronic device that measures hydrostatic pressure within the eye.

When it is put into position, a tiny movable plate is pressed against the eye, flattening a circular section of the cornea; a current is then sent through a small electromagnet, of such value that it will just pull the plate away from the eye.

The value of the current is proportional to eye pressure and a measurement can be made in about one second.

It is usually used in the diagnosis of glaucoma.

The references or sources of information for compiling the words and definitions in this unit are listed at this Electronic Bibliography page or specific sources are indicated when they are appropriate.

A cross reference of word units that are related, directly and/or indirectly, with "electricity": galvano-; hodo-; ion-; piezo-; -tron; volt; biomechatronics, info; mechatronics, info.