electro-, electr-, electri-

(Greek > Latin: electric, electricity; from amber, resembling amber, generated from amber which when rubbed vigorously [as by friction], produced the effect of static electricity)

Electronics in our lives consists of numerous tools

Equipment which we use everyday relies on electronics to function including calculators, car controls, cameras, washing machines, medical scanners, mobile telephones, radar systems, computers; as well as many other applications or devices which are listed in this unit.

electroencephalogram, EEG
1. The record obtained by means of the electroencephalograph which presents a record of electric currents generated in the cortex of the active brain.
2. A technique for studying the electrical currents within the brain.

Electrodes are attached to the scalp and wires attach these electrodes to a machine, which records the electrical impulses.

The results are either printed out or displayed on a computer screen where different patterns of electrical impulses can indicate various forms of epilepsy.

3. A graphic record of the minute changes in electric potential associated with the activity of the cerebral cortex, as detected by electrodes applied to the surface of the scalp.
4. A graphic chart on which is traced the electric potential produced by the brain cells, as detected by electrodes placed on the scalp.

The resulting brain waves are called alpha, beta, delta, and theta rhythms; according to the frequencies they produce, which range from two to twelve cycles per second.

Variations in brain wave activity are correlated with neurological conditions, psychological states, and levels of consciousness.

electroencephalograph, EEG
1. An instrument that measures and records brain wave or the electrical potentials on the scalp and generates a record of the electrical activity of the brain.
2. An apparatus for receiving and recording the electric potential produced by the brain cells.

It consists of a vacuum tube amplifier that magnifies the electrical currents received through electrodes placed on the scalp and electromagnetically records the patterns on a graphic chart.

3. An appliance that is used to amplify and to record the electrical activity of the brain, either through the intact skull and scalp, or directly from the exposed cerebral cortex (electrocorticography).

It is made up of a number of channels, each of which consists of an amplifying and recording instrument that records the electrical events beneath and between a pair of recording electrodes.

1. A reference to an electroencephalograph, or electroencephalography, in which the electrical activity of the brain is measured for the diagnosis and treatment of brain disorders.
2. Pertaining to an instrument that records the electric activity of the brain.
electroencephalographic lead
A pair of terminals that measures the potential differences resulting from cerebral activities between two points on the skull.
electroencephalographic technologist
A person trained in the management of an electroencephalographic laboratory.

The technologist may supervise electroencephalographic technicians, who are generally responsible for the operation and maintenance of the equipment.

electroencephalography, EEG
1. The recording of the electric currents developed in the brain, by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain (intracranial) or placed within the substance of the brain (depth).
2. A method of graphically recording the electric activities of the brain, particularly the cerebral cortex, with electrodes attached to the scalp.

This process is used in the diagnosis of epilepsy, trauma, tumors, and degenerations of the brain; as well as, in the study of the effects of drugs on the central nervous system and certain psychological and physiological functions.

3. Amplification, recording, and analysis of the electrical activity of the brain. The record that is produced is called an electroencephalogram.

Electrodes are placed on the scalp in various locations and the difference between the electric potential of two sites is recorded. The difference between one pair or among many pairs at a time can be determined.

The use of this diagnostic technique has proven to be very helpful in studying epilepsy and convulsive disorders and in localizing lesions in the cerebrum.

4. The process of recording brain wave activity by attaching electrodes to various areas of the patient's head with collodion (highly flammable, colorless or yellowish syrupy solution of pyroxylin, ether, and alcohol, used as an adhesive).

During the procedure, the patient must remain quiet, with eyes closed, and not talk or move.

In certain cases prescribed activities; especially, hyperventilation, may be requested by the technician.

The test is used to diagnose seizure disorders, brainstem disorders, focal lesions, and impaired consciousness.

During neurosurgery, the electrodes can be applied directly to the surface of the brain (intracranial electroencephalography) or placed within the brain tissue (depth electroencephalography) in order to detect any lesions or tumors that might exist.

1. An appliance for simultaneously displaying on a cathode ray tube the potentials from multiple locations in the brain.
2. An instrument for displaying on a cathode-ray screen the waveforms of voltages generated by various sections of the brain.
1. Endosmosis (inward transfer of a liquid solvent through a semipermeable membrane) under the influence of an electric field.
2. Endosmosis achieved or accelerated by the application of an electric current.
An enterostomy or a surgical creation of a permanent opening into the intestine through the abdominal wall which is performed with an electric appliance; such as, an electric cautery or an instrument that is used to seal a wound or to destroy damaged or infected tissue by burning.
electroexcision, electroresection
1. Any excision (cutting out) of tissue performed by electrosurgical procedures.
2. Removal of body tissue by use of an electric device; such as, a cautery.
3. A technique for the removal of bladder tumors or prostate tissue by eletrocautery.

After the administration of an anesthetic, a wire is guided to the site through the urethra with the aid of an optic probe.

Electricity is passed through the wire when the wire is properly located in the tissue to be destroyed.

The procedure is performed after the administration of an anesthetic.

An antipollution chimney device which removes particles by electrostatic action.
1. A method of fishing by using a positive electrical pole which attracts schools of fish into nets or traps.
2. The technology of catching fish by utilizing their tendency to seek the source of a direct electric current.
A convulsion induced by electroconvulsive therapy or a medical treatment for a type of seizure consisting of a series of involuntary contractions of the voluntary muscles.

Besides those occurring in epilepsy, convulsions can also be caused by chemical or hormonal imbalances in the blood; metabolic disturbances; injury to the brain; such as, from head injury, a tumor, or a stroke and numerous other causes; such as, infection, high fever, or cerebral edema (swelling of the brain caused by the accumulation of fluid in the brain substance).

A material that changes color when electrically activated but which does not radiate light.
electrofluiddynamic converter, electrofluid-dynamic converter
A converter which transforms the dynamic energy of a gaseous fluid into electric energy by passing through an electrostatic field a gas that contains electrically charged particles.

The action is similar to that of a Van de Graaff generator, but higher power density can be obtained.

A Van de Graaff generator is a type of electrostatic generator used to build up static electrical charge of very high voltages by transferring electric charge from a power supply to a spherical metal terminal.

A high-voltage source transfers an electric charge to a nonconducting conveyor belt, usually made of silk or rubber, which continuously redeposits the charge on the insulated metal terminal, where it accumulates.

Even small Van de Graaff generators can accumulate a static charge of 100,000 volts; the largest, up to ten million volts.

The references or sources of information for compiling the words and definitions in this unit are listed at this Electronic Bibliography page or specific sources are indicated when they are appropriate.

A cross reference of word units that are related, directly and/or indirectly, with "electricity": galvano-; hodo-; ion-; piezo-; -tron; volt; biomechatronics, info; mechatronics, info.