electro-, electr-, electri-
(Greek > Latin: electric, electricity; from amber, resembling amber, generated from amber which when rubbed vigorously [as by friction], produced the effect of static electricity)
Electronics in our lives consists of numerous tools
Equipment which we use everyday relies on electronics to function including calculators, car controls, cameras, washing machines, medical scanners, mobile telephones, radar systems, computers; as well as many other applications or devices which are listed in this unit.
2. The physics of the interactions of moving, charged particles and magnetic fields in planetary atmospheres, stars, and interstellar and intergalactic space.
- Like charges repel each other and unlike charges attract each other.
- The attraction or repulsion acts along the line between the two charges.
- The size of the force varies inversely as the square of the distance between the two charges.
- The size of the force is proportional to the value of each charge.
If the bodies are oppositely charged, one positive and one negative, they are attracted toward one another; if the bodies are similarly charged, both positive or both negative, the force between them is repulsive.
Coulomb's law applies only when the charged bodies are much smaller than the distance separating them and therefore can be treated approximately as point charges.
Antigens in a gel medium in which the pH is controlled are strongly negatively charged and will migrate rapidly across the electric field toward the anode.
The antibody in such a medium is less negatively charged and will migrate in an opposite or "counter" direction toward the cathode.
If the antigen and antibody are specific for each other, they combine and form a distinct line of precipitation.
This technique is becoming increasingly useful for detecting antigens or antibodies specific for given infectious diseases, diagnosing clinical bacterial infections, and choosing medications to treat the infections.
It is used in two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis, separation and identification of proteins based on differences in electrical charge and reactivity with antibodies.
In cryoelectron microscopy, the freezing of the sample is done in ethane slush to produce vitreous, or non-crystalline, ice. The frozen sample grid is then kept at liquid nitrogen temperature in the electron microscope and digital micrographs are collected with a camera.
The advantages of cryo-EM over traditional EM techniques include the preservation of the sample in a near-native hydrated state without the distortions from stains or fixatives needed for traditional EM. With image processing and averaging of multiple images, cyroelectron microscopy provides high resolution information (below 10 angstroms).
An angstrom is a metric unit of length equal to one ten billionth of a meter (or 0.0001 micron); used to specify wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation.
2. An instrument for the transillumination of a body cavity or the passage of strong light through a body structure, to permit inspection by an observer on the opposite side.
2. Pertaining to a substance or medium that can sustain a static electric field within it.
3. Relating to something that is a poor conductor of electricity, but an efficient supporter of electrostatic fields: Dielectric conditions can support an electrostatic field while dissipating minimal energy in the form of heat; frequently used in capacitors.
4. A type of insulator which becomes polarized when it comes in contact with an electrical field: The dielectric material can easily support an electrostatic field even though it is not a conductor of electricity.
Such dielectric materials are used in many places; such as, in capacitors and radios, as well as transmission lines for radio frequency and it can be used to store energy too, if it is configured properly.
Most of these dielectric materials are solid in nature, but some fluids and gasses also exhibit dielectric properties; such as gas is dry air, while examples of solid dielectric materials include mica, ceramic, plastics and glass and even distilled water is considered to be a dielectric liquid.
2. The undesirable tendency of certain dielectrics to retain a portion of an electric charge after removal of the electric field.