# electro-, electr-, electri-

### Electronics in our lives consists of numerous tools

Equipment which we use everyday relies on electronics to function including calculators, car controls, cameras, washing machines, medical scanners, mobile telephones, radar systems, computers; as well as many other applications or devices which are listed in this unit.

electrical conductance
1. The ability of a system to conduct electricity, measured by the ratio of the current flowing through the system to the potential difference across it; the reciprocal of resistance.
2. The real part of the admittance of a circuit; when the impedance contains no re-actance, as in a direct-current circuit, it is the reciprocal of resistance, and so it is a measure of the ability of the circuit to conduct electricity.
electrical conduction
1. The passage of an electric charge that can occur by a variety of processes; such as, the passage of electrons or ionized atoms.
2. The passage of electric charges because of a force exerted on them by an electric field.

Conductivity is the measure of the ability of a conductor to carry electric current and it is defined as the ratio of the amount of charge passing through unit area of the conductor (perpendicular to the current direction) per second divided by the electric field intensity (the force on a unit charge).

Conductivity is the reciprocal of resistivity and it is therefore commonly expressed in units of siemens per meter.

electrical conductivity analyzer
A resistance-bridge instrument used to measure the electrical conductivity of solutions, slurries (suspension of solid particles in a liquid), or wet solids.
electrical conductivity, specific conductance
1. The ratio of the electric current density to the electric field in a material.
2. The ability of a material to conduct electricity.

Metals are usually good conductors and nonmetals are poor conductors.

3. The measure of a material's ability to carry an electric current.

An electric conductor is a material that, when placed between terminals having a difference of electrical potential, will readily permit the passage of an electric current.

Different materials have different degrees of conductivity, and their effectiveness is computed as the conductivity.

The best conductors are the metals; such as, silver, copper, aluminum, platinum, and mercury; however, nonmetallic substances: such as, carbon, saline solutions, and moist earth are also sufficiently conductive so that such properties are significant in certain situations.

Because of their cost and conductivity characteristics, copper and aluminum are widely used as conductors.

Copper is used more often than aluminum and its use is preferred for high-voltage transmission than aluminum, because of its lighter weight is a definite advantage.

Steel as a conductor is inferior to the other two materials mentioned; however its greater strength and resistance to wear have led to its choice as a conductor for special purposes; such as, that of power rail services on electrified railways, and as an inner core of copper or aluminum cables.

electrical degree
The unit of measurement for an electrical angle; equal to 1/360 cycle of an alternating quantity.
electrical disintegration
The selective removal of excess metal or alloy by using an electric spark.
electrical distance
1. The distance between two points in a free space, expressed in terms of the time required for an electromagnetic wave to travel between the points.
2. The distance between two points, expressed in terms of the duration of the travel of an electromagnetic wave in a free space between the two points.
electrical drainage
Diversion of electric currents from subterranean pipes to prevent electrolytic corrosion.
electrical energy, electrical power
1. The energy inherent in an array of charged particles because of their relative positions.
2. The energy inherent in a circuit because of its position in relation to a magnetic field.
electrical engineer
1. An engineer who engages in research, design, production, operation, and the maintenance of electric power production and transmission facilities, telecommunication systems, or microelectronic devices and systems.
2. An engineer whose training includes a degree in electrical engineering from an accredited college or university, or someone who has comparable knowledge and experience, to prepare him or her for maintaining the generation, transmission, and utilization of electric energy.
3. A trained specialist in electrical systems, especially those which power and control machines or are involved in communications.
electrical engineering
1. Engineering which studies the practical applications of electricity in science and technology involving electrical current flow through conductors; such as, in motors and generators.
2. A division of engineering concerned with the practical applications of electricity in all its forms, including those of electronics.

Electrical engineering is concerned with electric light, power systems, and devices.

Electronics engineering is concerned with wire and radio communication, the stored-program electronic computer, radar, and automatic control systems.

3. A branch of engineering which focuses on the design, the construction, and the operation of electrical systems, devices, and equipment.

The founders of electrical science were physicists and mathematicians; such as, Ampere, Faraday, Gauss, and Maxwell, whose theories eventually led to the electric motor and the incandescent lamp.

Access to local motive power without steam or waterwheels and light without flames created a new industry as well as a new profession.

With the introduction of the vacuum-tube and transistor, electronics, the behavior of the electron in vacuum and in solids, joined the field as electronic engineering, and the pertinent U.S. professional society is known as the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE.

The common theme is always electricity, the electron, and James Clark Maxwell's wave equation even with the inclusion of newer power systems starting with communications, computers, and optical devices; such as, the laser and the camcorder.

James Maxwell (1831-1879) was a Scottish physicist who was best known for his work with electricity and magnetism.

â€”Compiled from information presented by
Robert H. Kingston, Electrical engineering and Computer Science;
Massachusetts Institute of Technology; as seen in the
Academic Press Dictionary of Science and Technology;
Edited by Christopher Morris; Academic Press,
Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers; New York; 1992; page 719.
electrical equipment
The various appliances, applications, devices, wiring, fittings, fixtures, and materials used as a component of or in connection with an electrical process or installation.
electrical equivalent
An outside calibrated current source that is compared to, or equivalent to, the electric current passing through an electrolyte solution.
electrical fault (s) (noun), electrical faults (pl)
A defect in an electric circuit, component, or line; such as, a short circuit: Susan blew a fuse because of an electrical fault in her iron when she plugged it into the socket.

Sally went outside to take care of her flowers one morning when a sudden explosion took place in her kitchen because of some kind of electrical faults in her refrigerator that resulted in a severe fire in her apartment.

electrical grid
An integrated system of electricity distribution, usually covering a large area.

The references or sources of information for compiling the words and definitions in this unit are listed at this Electronic Bibliography page or specific sources are indicated when they are appropriate.

A cross reference of word units that are related, directly and/or indirectly, with "electricity": galvano-; hodo-; ion-; piezo-; -tron; volt; biomechatronics, info; mechatronics, info.