electro-, electr-, electri-

(Greek > Latin: electric, electricity; from amber, resembling amber, generated from amber which when rubbed vigorously [as by friction], produced the effect of static electricity)

Electronics in our lives consists of numerous tools

Equipment which we use everyday relies on electronics to function including calculators, car controls, cameras, washing machines, medical scanners, mobile telephones, radar systems, computers; as well as many other applications or devices which are listed in this unit.

terrestrial electricity
A collective term for all natural electrical phenomena of the earth, including atmospheric electricity.
therapeutic electrode
1. An electrode used for the introduction of medicines through the skin by ionization.
2. An electrode filled with therapeutic agents.
thermionic electron
An electron emitted by heating a substance.
thermoelectric cooler, thermoelectric cooling
An electronic heat pump used to produce cooling with a thermoelectric effect, consisting of a thermocouple with its "cold" end in the chamber to be cooled and its "hot" end in an outside heat sink.
thermoelectric, thermoelectrically
Involving or produced by thermoelectricity; that is, electrical phenomena occurring in conjunction with a flow of heat
1. An electrical current generated in a thermopile.
2. Electricity generated by heat.
3. Electricity produced by the direct action of heat or the direct conversion of heat into electricity; such as, in a thermocouple.

When two metals are placed in electric contact, electrons flow out of the one in which the electrons are less bound and into the other.

The binding is measured by the location of the so-called Fermi level of electrons in the metal; the higher the level, the lower is the binding.

The Fermi level represents the demarcation in energy within the conduction band of a metal between the energy levels occupied by electrons and those that are unoccupied. It is important in determining the electrical and thermal properties of solids.

The Fermi level is the measure of the energy of the least tightly held electrons within a solid; named for Enrico Fermi, Italian-born American physicist who first proposed it and who was one of the chief architects of the nuclear age.

He developed the mathematical statistics required to clarify a large class of subatomic phenomena, explored nuclear transformations caused by neutrons, and directed the first controlled chain reaction involving nuclear fission.

—Compiled from "Thermoelectricity", Encyclopædia Britannica; 2010;
Encyclopædia Britannica Online; June 6, 2010.
An electron emitted by a very hot object.
thimble electrode
An electrode worn on the palpating index finger (examining the body by touching or pressing with the finger) for rapid localization of motor points or small areas on a muscle where a minimal amount of electrical stimulation will cause the muscle to contract.
thin-layer electrophoresis
Zone electrophoresis in which the supporting medium is applied in a thin layer to a glass or plastic strip.
transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator, transdermal electrical nerve stimulator, transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, TENS, transcutaneous nerve stimulation
1. A portable electronic device designed to relieve chronic pain by sending electrical impulses through electrodes covering the afflicted area on the body.
2. A method of pain control with the application of electric impulses to the nerve endings.

This is done through electrodes which are placed on the skin and attached to a stimulator with flexible wires.

The electric impulses which are generated are similar to those of the body; however, they are different enough to block the transmission of pain signals to the brain making this procedure noninvasive and nonaddictive, and with no known side effects.

transcutaneous oxygen electrode
An appliance which measures the oxygen tension in the skin without penetrating the body's tissues
transmission electron microscopy (s) (noun), transmission electron microscopies (pl)
1. The study of materials by means of the electron microscope.
2. Referring to a microscope in which an electron beam replaces light to form an image.
3. A technique using an electron microscope in which a beam of electrons is focused by an electromagnetic lens and directed onto an extremely thin specimen.

The emerging electrons are focused and directed by a second lens onto a fluorescent screen.

The magnified image which is produced is 1000 times greater than that produced by an optic microscope and well resolved, but it is two-dimensional because of the thinness of the specimen.

triboelectric (adjective)
A reference to an electrical charge that is produced by friction between two objects; such as, rubbing silk on a glass surface.
triboelectricity (s) (noun), triboelectricities (pl)
In physics, electrical charges produced by friction between two surfaces; static electricity.

Frictional electricity was supposedly known to the ancient Greeks, particularly Thales of Miletus, who observed about 600 B.C. that when amber was rubbed, it would attract small bits of matter. The term "frictional electricity" gave way to "triboelectricity", although since tribo means "to rub", the newer term does little to change the concept.

triboelectrification (s) (noun), triboelectrifications (pl)
1. The separation of electrical charges through surface friction.
2. A process of charge separation that involves the rubbing together of dissimilar material surfaces; such as, blowing dust which may charge fences and other metallic objects to such an extent that slight shocks are felt when touched.

The triboelectric series is a classification scheme for the ordering of the tendency for positive charge acquisition in rubbing. The detailed physical mechanism in triboelectrification is a long unsolved problem.

The references or sources of information for compiling the words and definitions in this unit are listed at this Electronic Bibliography page or specific sources are indicated when they are appropriate.

A cross reference of word units that are related, directly and/or indirectly, with "electricity": galvano-; hodo-; ion-; piezo-; -tron; volt; biomechatronics, info; mechatronics, info.