duro-, dur-, dura-

(Latin: hard [as wood], lasting; thick, tough)

dour (DOER or DOUR) (adjective); dourer, more dourer; dourest, most dourer
1. Severe or gloomy, and unfriendly and unresponsive toward others: Marge had a dour expression on her face when she heard about the higher prices at the store.
2. Grimly and stubbornly determined: The football player was in a dour mood when he tried to run for the goal with the football.
3. Marked by sternness or harshness; a forbidding nature: The people had dour feelings when they returned to see the results of the flooding of their homes.

The politician had a dour personality when he heard about the comments made about him by his opponent.

4. Etymology: "severe", from Scottish and northern England dialect, considered to be from Latin durus "hard"; the sense of "gloomy" is from about 1470.

The pronunciation of dour traditionally rhymes with "tour"; as with DOER. The variant pronunciation that rhymes with "sour" (DOUR) is also considered to be widely used and so it is also considered an acceptable pronunciation by some authorities.

Relating to showing sternness or a forbidding nature.
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Pertaining to showing a stern or severe behavior.
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dourly (adverb), more dourly, most dourly
Conveying how a person presents himself or herself, either orally or physically, in a stern, harsh, or obstinate manner: Dana was dourly expressing her frustrations when the weather kept her from getting to work on time.
dourness (s) (noun) (usually there is no plural)
A characteristic behavior of negative feelings of disappointment and gloominess: The cancellation of the concert resulted in a dourness for those who were planning to attend it.
dura mater (s) (noun), dura maters (pl)
1. The tough outermost membrane of the three meninges or layers of connective body tissues that surround and protect the brain and the spinal cord: The dura mater is the strong and fibrous outer covering; while inside the skull, it comprises an outer and an inner layer and provides support for the substances of the brain.

While the dura mater is lining the inside of the skull, it is supporting the cranial sinuses or channels, and allows blood to be carried from the brain to the heart.

Folds of the dura mater partly separate the cerebral hemispheres from each other and the cerebrum (the largest and most developed part of the brain and the area where most conscious and intelligent activities occur) from the cerebellum (region of the brain that maintains posture and balance and the coordination of movements).

2. Etymology: from Latin dura mater; literally, "hard mother" and dura mater cerebri; "hard mother of the brain".
durability (s) (noun), durabilities (pl)
Permanence by virtue of the capacity to resist wear, pressure, or damage: It is well known that there is a durability of plastics for many items.

Automobiles are known for their durability if they are serviced properly.

durable (adjective), more durable, most durable
1. Characteristic of lasting a long time in spite of hard wear or frequent use: The salesman told Joan that the raincoat she bought was made of very durable material and so it would wear well for years.

Porcelain enamel is a very strong and durable material to use for making expensive dishes, cups, decorations, etc.

2. Referring to something or someone staying strong and in good condition for a significant duration: Jerry was a durable athlete who has helped his football team win many games.
Pertaining to lasting inspite of hard wear and frequent use.
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durable goods (pl) (noun) (plural used as a singular)
Products that are purchased and which may remain for use over a long period of time: Examples of durable goods include cars, furniture, clothing, shoes, computers, etc.
durableness (s) (noun) (usually no plural)
An item which is characterized as being substantial, sturdy and long-lasting: Hard-sided suitcases are known for their durableness because they are very strong and they are recommended by airlines for traveling.
durably (adverb), more durably, most durably
A reference as to how something can withstand wear or decay: The pictures that were taken of Joe's children many years ago are durably preserved in a family photo album.
durance (s) (noun), durances (pl)
1. Forceful confinement, restraint, or imprisonment for a long time: The king committed the criminal to durance for stealing the knight’s horse from his castle.
2. A strong cloth, made of fake leather and used for clothing: At the clothing store, Judy saw a nice jacket in brown durance, or imitation suede, very similar to the shoes that she had at home.
duraplasty (s) (noun), duraplasties (pl)
An operation on the tough outermost membrane that covers the brain and the spinal cord and which entails a closure with a second soft tissue that can be a muscle or a section of associated intercellular material of the body: After the terrible car accident, Robert had a duraplasty performed in hopes that he would survive the crash.
durate (verb), durates; durated; durating
To measure or to determine the span of time of an event: Jan wanted to durate a number of hours of sunshine in her backyard on the first day of summer.
duration (s) (noun), durations (pl)
An extension or length of time that something exists or lasts: The manager of the store told Jim that it would be closed for a duration of one month because of the renovations that were going to be made.

Peggy was told by her physical trainer that she should gradually increase the duration of her workouts.

The TV cameras remained on the President for the duration of his speech.

durematoma (s) (noun), durematomas (pl)
1. The amassment of blood between the dura mater, or hard matter; and the arachnoid, the middle of the three layers of the meninges or the thin, delicate, intermediate membranes covering the brain and the spinal cord: A durematoma forms when blood escapes from the vessels and collects as a clot rather than being a growth of cells or a tumor.

2. Etymology: from Latin dura, feminine of durus, "hard" + Greek haima, "blood" + oma,"tumor".
duress (s) (noun), duresses (pl)
Constraint or coercion by threats which are meant to make someone do something: Jane's friend confessed to a crime, which he did not commit, because he was under duress.
A restraint of one's personal liberty by fear or force.
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A forcible restriction.
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