-al; -ial, -eal
(Latin: suffix; pertaining to, like, of the kind of, relating to, characterized by, belonging to; action of, process of)
The divisions are the left upper quadrant (LUQ), the left lower quadrant (LLQ), the right upper quadrant (RUQ), and the right lower quadrant (RLQ).
- Left upper quadrant (LUQ): left lobe of liver, stomach, transverse colon, splenic flexure, pancreas, left kidney, and spleen.
- Left lower quadrant (LLQ): small intesine, left ureter, sigmoid flexure, descending colon, bladder if distended, left spermatic duct in the male; left ovary and left tube, and uterus if enlarged, in the female.
- Richt upper quadrant (RUQ): right lobe of the liver, gallbladder, part of transverse colon, part of pylorus, hepatic flexure, right kidney, and duodenum.
- Right lower quadrant (RLQ): cecum, ascending colon, small intestine, appendix, bladder if distended, right ureter, right spermatic duct in the male; right ovary and right tube, and uterus if enlarged, in the female.
Lacking these reflexes indicates damage to the pyramidal tract or the projection neurones in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus of the brain or two groups of nerve fibers that participate in the complex and delicate coordination of motor activity arising in the brain and passing down through the spinal cord to motor cells.
An indication for the need of surgical intervention include fetal distress (fetal hypoxia or low oxygen levels in the fetus) associated with dystocia (difficult or painful childbirth labor or delivery), arrested descent (interruption in the labor process), abruptio placentae (placenta prematurely separating from the wall of the uterus), or umbilical cord prolapse (slipping or falling out of place).
This test is used to diagnose and locate cysts, tumors, calculi, and malformations; to document the progression of various diseases; and to guide the insertion of instruments during surgical procedures.
Although its major part is muscular, the abdominal wall consists of at least seven layers: the skiln, subcutaneous fat, deep fascia; abdominal muscles, transversalis fascia, extraperitoneal fat, and the parietal peritoneum.2. The lining of the abdomen, which consists partly of bone but mostly of muscle.
Several sets of muscles support and propel the torso or body; for example, the abdominal wall muscles help transfer force between the upper and lower body, and they also protect the delicate internal organs their most important function is to support the back.
The muscles of the torso extend in several directions and they help to maintain the posture and aid the spinal muscles when bending, twisting, and when doing other movements.
The perineum is the region between the thighs; in the female between the vulva and the anus; in males, between the scrotum and the anus.