cranio-, crani-, cran- +

(Greek > Medieval Latin [c.700-c.1500]: head, skull)

The developmental absence of a part of the cranium.
metabolic craniopathy, metabolic encephalopathy (s) (noun); metabolic craniopathies; metabolic encephalopathies (pl)
Encephalopathy characterized by memory loss, vertigo, and generalized weakness: Metabolic craniopathy is due to a metabolic brain disease including hypoxia (abnormal oxygen reduction), ischemia (low oxygen condition because of inadequate blood flow), hypoglycaemia (abnormally diminished concentration of glucose in the blood), or secondary to another organ failure, such as the liver or kidney.
migraine aura
A sensory phenomenon that may occur before a migraine.

Visual auras may include flashing lights, geometric patterns, or distorted vision. Some people may have aural (ear) auras that involve hearing sounds (usually buzzing) that are not actually present, olfactory auras that involve smelling odors that are not actually present, or tactile auras that appear as premonitory physical sensations (giving prior warning of disease symptoms).

The auras experienced by migraine sufferers are similar to those associated with epilepsy.

migraine headache; (sometimes an alternate form) megrim, megrims
1. A recurrent, throbbing, very painful headache, often affecting one side of the head and sometimes accompanied by vomiting or by distinct warning signs, including visual disturbances.
2. Usually consisting of periodic attacks of headaches on one or both sides of the head that may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, increased sensitivity of the eyes to light (photophobia), increased sensitivity to sound (phonophobia), dizziness, blurred vision, cognitive disturbances, and other symptoms.

Attacks are preceded by constriction of the cranial arteries, usually with the resultant prodromal sensory (especially ocular) symptoms and commence with the vasodilation that follows.

Not all severe headaches are migraines and not all migraines are severe.

Some factors known to make migraines worse in some patients include stress, food sensitivities, menstruation, and the onset of menopause.

Most patients will feel better if they lie down and avoid bright lights.

3. Etymology: from 1373, megrim, from Old French migraigne, from a vulgar pronunciation of Late Latin hemicrania, "pain in one side of the head, headache"; from Greek hemikrania, from hemi-, "half" + kranion, "skull".

The Middle English form was re-spelled in 1777 based on the French model.

migrainous neuralgia, cluster headache
A distinctive episodic syndrome of headaches.

The most common cluster headache pattern, acute cluster headache, is characterized by one to three short attacks of pain each day around the eyes, clustered over a stretch of one to two months, and followed by a pain-free period that averages about one year.

Cluster headaches are different and distinct from migraines, although the underlying mechanisms are similar.

ocular migraine, retinal migraine
A migraine involving the eyes that results in the distortion of visual images, accompanied or followed by a headache.

An ocular migraine usually affects only one eye at a time. Image distortion generally begins in the center of the image and then moves to one side.

Images "gray out" or look wavy, and sight may be lost temporarily.

1. The bony cranium, as distinguished from the cartilaginous cranium.
2. The fetal skull during the period of ossification, from early in the third month of gestation.
3. The cranium of the fetus after ossification of the membranous cranium has made it firm.
1. The portion of the petrous part of the temporal bone that houses the internal ear.
2. The petrous part and the mastoid process of the temporal bone, containing the hearing apparatus.
Relating to the pericranium; surrounding the skull.
pericranium (s), pericrania (pl)
The membrane of connective tissue that surrounds the skull.
visceral cranium (s) (noun), visceral craniums (pl)
The portion of the skull which forms the face and the jaws: The plastic surgeon carefully reconstructed the visceral cranium of the patient who had been severely injured in a car accident.