cholo-, chol-, chole-
(Greek: bile, gall)
2. A contagious disease caused by Vibrio cholerae, which produces a toxin that alters the water and electrolyte fluxes toward secretion in the upper intestinal tract, thereby causing a profuse, watery diarrhea resulting in severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalance.
3. Any of various diseases of domesticated animals; such as, chickens, turkeys, or hogs, marked by severe gastroenteritis.
The disease is endemic in southeast Asia and India and epidemic globally. It is commonly transmitted in contaminated drinking water.4. Etymology: from "choler, bile, melancholy"; from Latin cholera, from Greek kholera, "a type of disease characterized by diarrhea, supposedly caused by choler"; from khole, "gall, bile"; from khloazein, "to be green"; from khloros, "greenish-yellow".
2. A pleural effusion (excess fluid between the two membranes that envelop the lung) containing bile and blood.
The most common symptoms of pleural effusion are chest pain and difficulty breathing (dyspnea). Many pleural effusions cause no symptoms but are discovered during a physical examination or seen on a chest x-ray, which is the most convenient way to confirm the diagnosis.
Many conditions are capable of causing pleural effusion, including heart failure and uremia (kidney failure), hypoalbuminemia (low levels of albumin in the blood), infections (TB, bacterial, fungal, viral), pulmonary embolism, and malignancies (metastatic tumors, Hodgkin disease, mesothelioma).
2. The visual examination of bile ducts utilizing a fiberoptic endoscope (an optical system in which the image is conveyed by a compact bundle of small diameter, flexible, glass or plastic fibers).