sol-, -sol +
(Latin: base, ground, soil, bottom; the lowest part of something; sole of the foot or a shoe)
Soil orders are named by adding the suffix -sol to a root word, as shown in the table of the United States Soil Taxonomy and the soil classification system of the Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO (agency of the United Nations).
Many of the applicable soilwords which are listed and defined in this unit do not use the -sol suffix; however, they are included because they are essential parts of the major listings of the U.S. Soil Taxonomy and the Food and Agriculture Organization presentations.
The soil groups are based on extensive sets of field and laboratory observations and on extensive technical criteria.
They are found primarily in humid temperate and tropical areas of the world, typically on older, stable landscapes.
Ultisols have a subsurface horizon in which clays have accumulated, often with strong yellowish or reddish colors that result from the presence of Fe (metal) oxides. The "red clay" soils of the southeastern United States are examples of Ultisols.
With the use of fertilizer and lime, these Ultisols can be very productive for agriculture.
Ultisols are divided into five suborders: Aquults, Humults, Udults, Ustults, and Xerults; all of which are defined in this unit.2. From the U.S. Soil Taxonomy soil-order classification system.
3. Etymology: from Latin ultimus, "last".
They are found under forest cover in high-rainfall regions of western Europe, the Pacific Coast of North America north of California, the southwestern coast of South America, and the Himalayas.
Umbrisols occupy about 0.8 percent of the total continental land area on earth and are related to soils of the Inceptisol order of the U.S. Soil Taxonomy which form under coniferous forest vegetation.
They are the forestland counterpart of Chernozems, Kastanozems, and Phaeozems in exhibiting a humus-rich surface layer.2. From the classification system of the Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO.
3. Etymology: from Latin umbra, "shade, shadow".
During dry periods, the soil shrinks, and significant vertical cracking and deep wide cracks form; but, as it gets water, the soil expands.
Typically forming under grassland vegetation in basins or rolling hill landscapes, Vetisols are best suited for use as pastureland and for the cultivation of plants; such as, rice, which thrives in standing surface water.
Vertisols are divided into six suborders: Aquerts, Cryerts, Xererts, Torrerts, Usterts, and Uderts all of which are defined in this unit.2. From the U.S. Soil Taxonomy soil-order classification system.
3. Etymology: from Latin vertere, "to turn".